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Barrow J.D., Tipler F.J. Ч Anthropic Cosmological Principle
Barrow J.D., Tipler F.J. Ч Anthropic Cosmological Principle



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Ќазвание: Anthropic Cosmological Principle

јвторы: Barrow J.D., Tipler F.J.

јннотаци€:

Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that "intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and once it comes into existence, it will never die out."
This wide-ranging and detailed book explores the many ramifications of the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, covering the whole spectrum of human inquiry from Aristotle to Z bosons. Bringing a unique combination of skills and knowledge to the subject, John D. Barrow and Frank J. TiplerЧtwo of the world's leading cosmologistsЧcover the definition and nature of life, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and the interpretation of the quantum theory in relation to the existence of observers.
The book will be of vital interest to philosophers, theologians, mathematicians, scientists, and historians, as well as to anyone concerned with the connection between the vastness of the universe of stars and galaxies and the existence of life within it on a small planet out in the suburbs of the Milky Way.


язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1986

 оличество страниц: 726

ƒобавлена в каталог: 08.04.2009

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ѕредметный указатель
$\nu ov\zeta$      32 see
Absolute idealism, telelogical ideas in      153Ч159
Action Principles      6 66
Action Principles, and telelogical ideas      148Ч153
Action Principles, Euler's approach      149 150
Action Principles, in Einstein's gravitational theory      490
Action Principles, opposition to      150Ч151
Action Principles, predictions based on      124Ч125 148Ч153
Adams, Douglas, quoted      490
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)      553Ч555 561
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), molecular structure of      554
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactions catalysed by      554
Adiabatic irregularities      388Ч389 393
Aerobic respiration, development necessary as crucial step in Man's evolution      562
Age of Universe, expressed in terms of density parameter      376 377 626
Agucchi, Giovanni, argument against Copernican system      496
Al-Biruni      95
Albertus Magnus, quoted      576
Albrecht-Steinhardt 'new inflationary universe' model      431
Alexander, evolving-deity concept      190Ч191
Alexander, Samuel      190
Alpha-particle wave function      485 486
Alternative forms of life      511
Amino acids      549
Ammonia      550
Ammonia, anomalous physical properties of      524 525
Ammonia, as alternative solvent to water      541 550Ч552
Ammonia, density of solid form      552
Ammonia, physical properties of      534 535 536 537 550Ч551
Ammonium ions      550
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae      32Ч33
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Aristotle's criticism of      33
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Socrates' criticism of      33Ч34
Ancient world, design arguments in      31Ч46
Anisotropy model entropy per baryon explained by      402
Anonymous poet, quoted, on hydrogen and oxygen      541
Anselm, St.      106
Anthropic Principle, Brandon Carter's definition      1
Anthropic Principle, definitions      1 510
Anthropic Principle, rediscovery of      219Ч276
Anthropic, definition of      159
Anthropic, definition of first use of word by Tennant      181
Antimatter, cosmic sources of      379Ч380
Aquatic life      see УMarineФ
Aquinas      see УThomas AquinasФ
Arabic philosophy      46
Arabic philosophy, Aristotelian ideas in      45
Archimedes, enumeration of particles in Universe      220
Aristotle      37Ч40
Aristotle, Causes argument      38Ч39
Aristotle, criticism of Anaxagoras      33
Aristotle, criticism of Empedocles      34
Aristotle, definition of soul by      659 680n
Aristotle, final cause concept      9 28 38Ч39
Aristotle, quoted      38 39 40
Aristotle, quoted on definition of life      511
Arouet, Francois-Marie      see УVoltaireФ
Artificial telelogy      134
Asteroids, infrared radiation from      597
Asteroids, likely place for ETI probe      597 61
Asteroids, size-mass relationship      290
Astronomical unit, calculation of      337
Astronomical unit, value quoted      221
Astrophysics, Weak Anthropic Principle applied      290Ч291 305Ч318 327Ч360
Asymptotically free interactions      408
Atmospheres, composition for various planets      544 see
Atomic binding energies      297 533
Atomic bond energies, carbon compared to silicon      546
Atomic bond energies, values quoted      301 526
Atomic bonding, possible on neutron stars      346
Atomic bonding, types of      300Ч301 526 see also УCovalentФ УHydrogenФ УIonicФ УMetallicФ УVan der Waals bondingФ
Atomic radius, all of same-order size      298
Atomic radius, formulae for      296Ч297
Atomic year      298
Atomism      36Ч37 41
Atomism, revival of      112n
Atoms, energy of      296
Atoms, formation at beginning of Universe      372
Atoms, formation at beginning of Universe, relativistic effect in      295Ч297 575n
Atoms, structure of      297
Atoms, Weak Anthropic Principle applied to      295Ч299
Automobiles, as living organisms      521Ч522
Autonomous morphogenesis, as property of life      519 520
Autotropic photosynthesis, development necessary as crucial step in Man's evolution      562Ч563
Averroes of Cordova      46Ч47
Axelrod, Robert      100 102
Axions      390 393 395
Ayala, F.J., reductionism classification      138
Ayala, F.J., telelogical nomenclature      134
Background radiation temperature, as limit for computer operation      661Ч662 see also УMicrowave background radiationФ
Background radiation temperature, directional dependence of      630Ч631
Bacon, Francis      51Ч52
Bacon, Francis, first use of word 'consciousness'      507n
Bacon, Francis, quoted      49 52
Bacon, Roger      48
Baer, K. E. von      82
Baimer law (for hydrogen spectrum)      222
Ball-in-box paradox      466Ч467
Balls, variation of circumference and volume with dimension      270 271
Barnes, Ernest W., Anthropic Principle reasoning      126 184
Barnes, Ernest W., on Heat Death      168
Barnes, Ernest W., on mankind      184
Baryon asymmetry of Universe      359 402Ч403
Baryon number      357
Baryon number, generation      404Ч408
Baryon number, non-conservation of      357 403Ч404
Baryon-to-photon ratio      381
Bauer, E., quoted, on introspection      468Ч469
Bauer, E., simplified discussion of von Neumann theory of measurement      465
Bayesian theorem, WAP as application of      17
Beck, G., spoof on Eddington's methodology      227Ч228
Becker, Carl, quoted      295
Beginning of universe      442
Beginning of universe, events before      442 636
Bending stresses, stability to      312Ч323
Bentley, R.      61
Bergson, Henri, evolutionary telelogy      189Ч190
Bergson, Henri, on global time      216n
Bergson, Henri, on Heat Death      190
Berkeley, Bishop George      22 125 155Ч156
Berkeley, definition of soul by      68In
Bernadin de Saint-Pierre      92 119
Bernal, J. D., definition of life by      521
Bernal, J. D., quoted, on end of Universe      618Ч629
Beryllium-8, autocatalytic role in helium burning reaction      252
Bethe, H., spoof on Eddington's methodology      227Ч228
Bianchi classification      423 454n
Bianchi type IX cosmologies      666
Bianchi type IX universes      423 425 639Ч640
Bianchi type IX universes, as models of past universes      640
Bianchi type IX universes, forced into having omega point by intelligent life      673
Bianchi type VII universes      423 424Ч425 426
Bierce, A., quoted, on water/ocean      524
Big Bang cosmological model      372Ч383
Big Bang cosmological model, and size of Universe      2Ч3
Big Bang cosmological model, confirmed by microwave background radiation      368 380
Binary collisions theory, E. W. Barnes' comment on      184
Binding energies, planets/stars      645
Biochemistry, Anthropic Principle applied to      510Ч576
Biological exclusion principle      596
Biology, status of teleology in      124 127Ч143
Biosphere, life as activity of      521
Biosphere, limit to lifetime of      566 578
Biosphere, marginal stability of      543Ч544 567 569
Biosphere, prediction of future age      566
Birds, limitation on size      314Ч325
Black body, microwave background radiation spectrum compared with      380
Black dwarfs, cooling of      648
Black dwarfs, planet collisions with      645
Black hole thermodynamics      223Ч224
Black holes      347Ч353
Black holes, as black bodies      224 352 445
Black holes, as final states after evaporation and gravitational radiation      643
Black holes, as information storage devices      669
Black holes, as unobservable phenomena      396
Black holes, evaporation of      353 650 674
Black holes, formation of      342 347
Black holes, general relativity description      352
Black holes, stabilized by matter-dumping      674
Black holes, supermassive growth process      349
Blood circulation, discovery by William Harvey      52Ч53
Blueshift, definition of      377
Bode, Johann, quotation of Titius law      221
Boethius      45
Bohr, Niels, on role of observer in quantum mechanics      459
Bohr, Niels, quantized atomic model      222 223 305
Bohr, Niels, reaction to EPR experiment      463
Boiling oceans, effect of time-varying gravitation      239Ч240
Boiling points, of various hydrides      524
Boltzmann, Ludwig, H-Theorem      174 175 176
Boltzmann, Ludwig, on direction of time      173Ч174
Boltzmann, Ludwig, quoted      195
Bondi-Gold-Hoyle (steady-state) cosmological model      601 616
bonds      see УAtomicФ УCovalentФ УHydrogenФ УIonicФ УMetallicФ УVan
Bonnet, Charles      68 221
Books, information content of      137
Borel, P., quoted      576
Born, Max, spoof on Eddington's methodology      228
Boshongo creation myth      94
boundary conditions      444Ч449
Boundary conditions, evolution equations      409
Boundary conditions, removal of      448Ч449
Boundary conditions, Strong Anthropic, in quantum cosmology      503Ч505
Boundary conditions, Weak Anthropic, in quantum cosmology      497Ч503
Boyle, astronomical examples not favoured by      56
Boyle, conversation with William Harvey      53
Boyle, lectures series bequeathed by      58 61
Boyle, quoted      55 56 57
Boyle, Robert      55Ч58
Brain      see УHuman brainФ
Branch universes      493 494
Branches of Universe, split by measurement      494 500Ч501
Brans-Dicke gravitation theory      245
Bread, information content of piece      198
Bremsstrahlung      299 389
Bremsstrahlung (free-free emission), cross-section for      299
Bridgewater Treatises      82 117n 144 524
Briicke, E. von, quoted      123
Brill-Flaherty theorem      627
Brillouin, L., equation for energy to obtain information      179Ч180
Brillouin, L., information-processing inequality      661 662
Brinkley, J.      79 116n
Bubble-universe models      192Ч193 436 441 605Ч607 616Ч627
Bubble-universe models, and Final Anthropic Principle      607
Bubble-universe models, closed-universe      605 607
Bubble-universe models, open-universe      605Ч607
Bubble-universe models, Penrose conformal diagram for      606
Bubble-universe models, Strong Anthropic Principle arguments against      607
Buddhist cosmology, large numbers in      276n
Buffon, G., estimate of Earth's age      117n 159Ч160
Buffon, G., on Final Causes      68 114n
Building blocks of life, synthesis of      3
Building blocks of life, time required for synthesis      18
bulk modulus      303
Burt, C. L., meaning of word 'consciousness'      507n
Burtt, E. A., paraphrasing Isaac Newton      621
Bush, Ian D., quoted      327
Butterfield, Herbert, on Whig interpretation of history      10 135
Caesium hyperfine transitions, as time standard      242
Cairns-Smith, A. G., mineral ecology concept      522
Capek, Milic      216n
Carbon compounds, metastability of      546Ч547
Carbon dioxide      545
Carbon dioxide, anthropic significance of      548
Carbon dioxide, in temperature regulation      548
Carbon dioxide, reversible hydration of      548
Carbon dioxide, unique solubility property of      548
Carbon, anthropic significance of      545Ч548
Carbon, relative abundance      542
Carbon-12, formation from He-4      252
Carbon-12, resonance level predicted by Hoyle      252
Carbon-based life, as only possibility      3 570
Carbon-based life, dependent on unique properties of certain elements      510
Carbon-based life, fine-tuned coincidences      253
Carbon-based polymers      547Ч548
Carbon-based polymers, spontaneous formation of      541
Carbonic acid      544 548
Carlyle, Thomas, quoted      384
Carr-Rees coincidence      400
Carroll, Lewis, quoted      288
Carter's inequality      511
Carter, Brandon, Anthropic Principle limitation to Copernician principle      1
Carter, Brandon, on gravitational constant      336
Carter, Brandon, rejection of prediction of future age of biosphere      566
Carter, Brandon, Strong Anthropic Principle introduced by      21Ч22 248
Carter, Brandon, Weak Anthropic Principle formula      557 559Ч560
Carter, Brandon, Weak Anthropic Principle formula, crucial steps for evolution of Man      562Ч564
Carter, Brandon, Weak Anthropic Principle formula, evolutionary criteria      561Ч562
Carter, Brandon, Weak Anthropic Principle formula, starting point for derivation      557
Cauchy horizon      674
Cauchy hypersurface topology      622
Cell membrane formation processes      540
Cell self-reproduction      513
Centriole/kinetosome/undulipodia complex, formation necessary as crucial step in Man's evolution      564
Chamberlain, Thomas C, solar system formation theory      125Ч126 165
Chandrasekhar, S., reaction to Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis      234
Chaos, and determinism      90Ч91 118Ч129
Chaotic cosmology      178
Chaotic cosmology programme (of Charles Misner)      420 422
Chaotic cosmology, gravitational entropy as antithesis of      446
Chaotic gauge theories      8 255 256
Chaotic inflationary-universe model      436Ч437
Chemical binding energy fraction      301
Chemistry, Weak Anthropic Principle applied      295Ч302
Chesterton, G. K., quoted      1
Chinese philosophy, spontaneous order concept in      96Ч97
Chinese philosophy, telelogical concepts in      95Ч96 98Ч99
Chlorophyll      555Ч556 561
Chlorophyll, absorption spectra of      556
Chordates, development necessary as crucial step in Man's evolution      564
Christie, Agatha, quoted      288
Chronology, ancient world      46
Chronology, Medieval ages      54
Chronology, modern age      204
Chronology, Renaissance      54
Chronometric cosmology      604Ч605
Chu Hsi      96
Churchill, Winston S., quoted      153
Cicero (Marcus Cicero)      43Ч44
Ciliate protozoa, reason for size      314
Civilization, growth in future      173
Clarke, Samuel, correspondence with Leibniz      62Ч63
Classical epoch, definition of      641
Classical timescales, future evolution of matter in      641Ч647
Clauser, John, quoted, on physical reality      463
Clock/watch analogy, as example of artificial telelogy      134
Clock/watch analogy, Boyle's use of      58
Clock/watch analogy, Cicero's use of      44
Clock/watch analogy, Paley's use of      77
Close stellar encounters      642
Closed Friedman universe      376 376
Closed Friedman universe, density inhomogeneities growth rate      415Ч426
Closed Friedman universe, Many-Worlds approach      490Ч496
Closed Friedman universe, Penrose diagram for      634
Closed universes, Cauchy hypersurface topology of      622
Closed universes, criterion for evolution of life      376 410
Closed universes, energy sources in far future      665Ч666
Closed universes, energy-conservation law      618
Closed universes, existence of life in      637 675 676
Closed universes, infinitely cycling model      192 193
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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