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Ayers J. Ч Neurotechnology for biomimetic robots
Ayers J. Ч Neurotechnology for biomimetic robots

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Ќазвание: Neurotechnology for biomimetic robots

јвтор: Ayers J.


The goal of neurotechnology is to confer the performance advantages of animal systems on robotic machines. Biomimetic robots differ from traditional robots in that they are agile, relatively cheap, and able to deal with real-world environments. The engineering of these robots requires a thorough understanding of the biological systems on which they are based, at both the biomechanical and physiological levels.
This book provides an in-depth overview of the field. The areas covered include myomorphic actuators, which mimic muscle action; neuromorphic sensors, which, like animal sensors, represent sensory modalities such as light, pressure, and motion in a labeled-line code; biomimetic controllers, based on the relatively simple control systems of invertebrate animals; and the autonomous behaviors that are based on an animalТs selection of behaviors from a species-specific behavioral "library." The ultimate goal is to develop a truly autonomous robot, one able to navigate and interact with its environment solely on the basis of sensory feedback without prompting from a human operator.

язык: en

–убрика: “ехнологи€/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 2002

 оличество страниц: 636

ƒобавлена в каталог: 16.10.2005

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
ѕредметный указатель
Abstraction      555 566
Acetone      106Ч107
Acoustic signals      484Ч485 496Ч499 515 see
Acrylic      157 158Ч159
Active cord mechanism      277
Active flow control      484 487 497
actuators      see also "Biomechanical primitives" "Muscle" "Pneumatic
Actuators and impedance      144 147
Actuators and load      146
Actuators for lamprey robot      291
Actuators for legged robots      402
Actuators for snake robots      283
Actuators of dielectric elastomer      152Ч158 165 166 168
Actuators, bow-tie      155 156 157 164
Actuators, choice of      402
Actuators, feedback loops      7Ч8
Actuators, future trends      413
Actuators, linear      156
Actuators, McKibben      412 414
Actuators, MEMS      x 173Ч183
Actuators, minimizing      189
Actuators, motor units      7Ч8
Actuators, myomorphic      242 243Ч245
Actuators, piezoelectric      190Ч191 197Ч201 475Ч478 486
Actuators, rolled      156 157 167Ч168
Actuators, servo      173
Actuators, trench-type      155 167
ADAMS simulation      429
Adaptivity of unit cell design      178Ч179
Adaptivity to light      39
Adaptivity to water currents      134 249Ч250
Adaptivity, rules for      420
Aerodynamics, of insect flight      470Ч475 488Ч490
Aileron motion      492
Aimed-trajectory formation      227 236
Air flow      28 490
Air stream      455
Aircraft      see also "Entomopter"
Aircraft, landing      503 606Ч608
Aircraft, stabilization of      65Ч70
Aircraft, unmanned      482Ч484
Aircraft, visually controlled      65Ч70
Aliasing, perceptional      423Ч424
Alloys      see "Nitinol" "Shape
Aluminum in actuators      180 183
Aluminum in scorpion robot      446
Aluminum, dielectric coating      180
Ambulation      245 265 see "Walking"
Amphibians      413 see
Amplitude in snake gait      274Ч275
Amplitude of steps      396Ч397
Amyl acetate      106Ч107
Analog homing      518 520Ч524 526
Analog neuron network      451Ч452
Analog sensors      251 256Ч257
Analysis, finite element (FEA)      177
Anemometers      23
Angles and phonotaxis      540
Angles in swimming      343 345
Angles of attack      492
Angles of descent      600 601
Angles of leg liftoff      365
Angles, approach      577
Angles, caudal fin      321
Angles, feathering      338
Angles, flapping      338
Angles, heading      305Ч306 540 542 558
Angles, joints and feedback      391
Angles, joints and posture      129
Angles, joints, swing and stance role      392 408 410 432
Angles, lead-lag      338
Angles, oscillatory pitch      343
Angles, pectoral fin      327 338
Angles, phase      331Ч332
Angles, pitch and roll      343Ч345
Angles, sinusoidal      338
Angles, touchdown      365Ч367 371
Angular resolution      33
Angular velocity of joint movement      391 392 433Ч436 437
Angular velocity of visual image      44Ч45 58Ч65 596 600Ч606
Antennae      16Ч17 250
Ants      528
Applications, indoor use      483 490 495 576
Applications, land mine detection      106 108 111
Applications, Mars exploration      499Ч507
Applications, mine detection      13Ч14 106 108 111
Applications, pipe inspection      168 268
Applications, pollutant tracking      268 564
Applications, reconnaissance      see "Entomopter"
Applications, search and rescue      268 271Ч273
Applications, unmanned aerial vehicles      482Ч484
Asymmetry, in vision robot      49 50Ч51
Autonomy and pattern generators      383
Autonomy of Entomopter      495Ч499 503Ч504
Autonomy of legged robots      413Ч415
Autonomy, long term      6
Autonomy, reactive      254 383
Autonomy, supervised      256 293Ч295 391Ч392
Average landmark vector      517 519Ч527 528 531
Averaging, prespike signal      581
Band-pass filter      391
Bandwidth of actuators      173
Bandwidth of visual sensor      91Ч92
Bass robot      see also "Pectoral fins"
Bass robot, control      330Ч333
Bass robot, depth      340 344
Bass robot, design      329Ч330 333 340Ч343
Bass robot, swimming      343Ч345
Bats      484
Beam for lamprey robot      292
Beam in contact/bending sensor      18Ч20 22Ч23
Beam theory      18
Beam, ultrasonic      482 496Ч499
Bearings, in quadruped      189Ч190
Bees in tunnels      593Ч595
Bees, centering reflex      584Ч585 593Ч595
Bees, landings      598Ч605
Bees, olfaction      588Ч589
Bees, speed control      595Ч598
Bees, vision      584Ч589
behavior      see also "Autonomy" "Obstacle
Behavior and sound      534 538Ч543
Behavior libraries for lamprey robot      287 289
Behavior libraries for lobster robot      251 252
Behavior, adaptive      178Ч179 420
Behavior, analysis      251Ч254
Behavior, choice      254
Behavior, finite-state analysis      251Ч254
Behavior, fixation      586
Behavior, food search      573 588Ч589 590
Behavior, goal-directed      4
Behavior, homing      495 517 see
Behavior, hybrid acts      248Ч249
Behavior, intensity increase      256
Behavior, odor tracking      515 553Ч554 see
Behavior, perceptive      513Ч515
Behavior, plume-tracking      562Ч564
Behavior, quantization      251 253
Behavior, reflex      226Ч227 228Ч230 232
Behavior, selectivity      556
Behavior, self-preservation      505
Behavior, synthetic      see "Biomechanical primitives"
Bending      14Ч22 410 see
Bias, directional      547
BICSAAR robots      see "Lobster robots"
Biomechanical primitives in controller      231Ч236
Biomechanical primitives, defined      226
Biomechanical primitives, force-field      9 226 227Ч229
Biomechanical primitives, future research      236
Biomechanical primitives, motor learning      227Ч231 231Ч236
Biomechanical primitives, spinal      225Ч227
Biomechanical primitives, study approaches      224Ч225
Biomechanical primitives, vestibular      230
Biomimetic robotics vs. nature      4 351
Biomimetic robotics, purpose      553Ч555 565Ч568 609
Biomimetic robotics, research needs      4Ч5
Biomorphic plant      242
Bipeds      355Ч357 364Ч368 371Ч375 377Ч379
Black bass      325Ч326 see
Blowflies      267Ч268 476 586
Body geometry      395Ч396
Body simulation      395
Brachiating robots      359
Brain of fly      33Ч34
Brain, force-field primitives      230
Brain, motion detectors      34
Brain, sensory interpretation      6 33Ч34
Braking by muscle      139Ч141 145
Braking in RoboTuna      299
Braking, car example      368
Breathing      168 169
Bridge drives      425
bridges      410
Burst generators      231
cameras      75 87 93 606
Cantilever beams in contact/bending sensor      18Ч20 22Ч23
Cantilever beams in flow sensors      23 24Ч25
Cartesian coordinates      266
Cats      410
Causality, in underwater robot      255
Cells, large monopolar (LMCs)      33Ч34
Cells, unit, of muscle      175Ч179
Center-surround responses      7
Centering reflex      584Ч585 593Ч595
Central nervous system      3Ч4 223Ч231 see "Spinal
Central pattern generators (CPGs) and scorpion robot      440Ч441
Central pattern generators (CPGs) for cockroach robot      357Ч358 362Ч363 371Ч375
Central pattern generators (CPGs) for lobster robot      9
Central pattern generators (CPGs) in natural brain      4
Ceramics, piezoelectric      189 190Ч191 197Ч201 486
Charge trapping      180 182 183
Chelae      252
Chemo-orientation      555 556Ч564 567 574
Chemoreceptors      559 561
Choice      233Ч236 254
circuits      see also "VLSI"
Circuits in legged robot      410
Circuits, elastodynamic quadruped      199Ч200
Circuits, fruit fly saccades      583
Circuits, homing      518 520Ч522
Circuits, integrate-and-fire      91
Circuits, lamprey software      291
Circuits, manufacturing      179
Circuits, motor primitives      227 233
Circuits, neural controller      245Ч249
Circuits, optomoter response      543
Circuits, pattern-generating      245Ч249
Circuits, phonotaxis      539Ч541 543 549Ч550
Circuits, polymeric muscle      152 169
Circuits, Reichardt motion      39 41
Circuits, sensory integration      410
Clever Hans      513
Climbing, legged robot      403 406 408 410
Climbing, snake robot      275
Closed-path motion      192
Cockroach robot      266Ч267 359Ч362 366 368Ч371 379n1
Cockroaches and force-time response      160Ч161
Cockroaches, climbing      410
Cockroaches, exoskeleton      412
Cockroaches, feedback in      410
Cockroaches, leg analysis      404 406
Cockroaches, leg stiffness/damping      140 151
Cockroaches, running      352Ч353
Cockroaches, stability      265Ч266
Cockroaches, walking      8
Coding for underwater robot      245 248 250 256Ч257
Coding mechanisms      5
Coding, genetic algorithm      209
Coding, oculomotor system      79Ч82
Coding, population      80
Coding, string-based      209
Coding, supervision commands      256
Collision angles      577
Colors      33
Command stack      254
Commands for walking      372 398
Commands, coding      256
Commands, superposition of      248Ч249
Communication and Mars exploration      506Ч507
Communication between crickets      515 533Ч534
Communication in scorpion robot      424
compass      303
Concertina progression      274Ч275
Configuration, parallel vs. serial      193Ч194
Contact      243 see "Obstacle
Contact/bending sensors in legged robot      410
Contact/bending sensors, cantilever beam      18Ч20
Contact/bending sensors, categories      14
Contact/bending sensors, contact- vs. flow-caused      17
Contact/bending sensors, design constraints      15
Contact/bending sensors, micromachining      15Ч16 16
Contact/bending sensors, neuromorphic      249Ч250
Contact/bending sensors, NUMEM      14Ч15
Contact/bending sensors, overbending      20
Contact/bending sensors, residual stress      22Ч23 29
Contact/bending sensors, sensitivity      20
Contact/bending sensors, stopper sensing      19Ч20 22
Contact/bending sensors, switches      14Ч15 17Ч19 20
Contact/bending sensors, testing      20Ч23
Contraction and flight      453 457 464Ч465
Contraction and power levels      128
Contraction of wasp muscle      492
Contrast and distance      63Ч65
Contrast and eye movements      63Ч65 67Ч70 85Ч86
Contrast and optomotor system      63Ч65 85Ч86 586
Contrast in vibration-based sensor      87
Control      see also "Coordination" "Feedback" "Feed-forward "Flow "Optomotor
Control and actuator choice      402
Control and joints      388
Control and silicon      188Ч189
Control of Bass II      330Ч333
Control of Entomopter      487
Control of landings      606Ч608
Control of limbs      388
Control of motor reflexes      227Ч229 233Ч236
Control of quadruped      188Ч189 190 197 201 202
Control of RoboTuna      303
Control of speed      392 595Ч597 598
Control of yaw      335Ч336
Control, (de)centralized      359
Control, architectures      xi 248Ч249
Control, closed-loop      266 606
Control, decision system      233Ч236
Control, directional      485Ч486
Control, dive-plane      303
Control, feed-forward      357Ч358 359 362Ч363 371Ч375
Control, hierarchical      384 409 424Ч425
Control, modular      384
Control, open-loop      266 303 333 357Ч358 see
Control, rendezvous      330Ч332
Control, wireless      202
Controllers and adjustments      9
Controllers and memory      9
Controllers for cockroach robot      354 355Ч357
Controllers for lamprey robot      287 291 359
Controllers for legged (insect-like) robot      402 407 409
Controllers for snake robot      277 278Ч281
Controllers for underwater robots      245Ч257
Controllers from motor primitives      231Ч236
Controllers of gait      266Ч267 388Ч394
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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