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Bashe C.J., Johnson L.R., Pugh E.W. Ч IBM's Early Computers
Bashe C.J., Johnson L.R., Pugh E.W. Ч IBM's Early Computers

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Ќазвание: IBM's Early Computers

јвторы: Bashe C.J., Johnson L.R., Pugh E.W.


In describing the technical experiences of one company from the beginning of the computer era, this book unfolds the challenges that IBM's research and development laboratories faced, the technological paths they chose, and how these choices affected the company and the computer industry. It chronicles the transformation of IBM into a computer company in a remarkably few years, discussing projects that ended in frustration as well as the more successful ones, and providing a sense of the atmosphere, the people, and the decision-making processes involved during the company's rapid technological transformation. IBM's Early Computers is a unique contribution to the modern history of computers. It focuses on engineering alternatives rather than business and general management considerations and reveals the significance of imaginative solutions to problems in design and technology, from initial experiments with electronics in digital machines to the threshold of the System 360 era. This fair and balanced account of IBM's role in shaping today's electronic revolution identifies the individuals (both inside and outside the company) whose pioneering work influenced developments at IBM. The book's fourteen chapters briefly survey the card machine era and then cover electronic calculation, the magnetic drum calculator, the Defense Calculator and other first-generation products, ferrite core memories, magnetic tape, and disk storage development, programming, transistors, "Project Stretch" (which involved disappointments but led to one of IBM's greatest successes) high-speed printers, research, and new-product-line considerations. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W Pugh are senior members of the staff at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, each with many years of technical and managerial experience in the developments they describe. IBM's Early Computers is included in the History of Computing Series, edited by I. Bernard Cohen and William Aspray.

язык: en

–убрика: “ехнологи€/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1986

 оличество страниц: 716

ƒобавлена в каталог: 11.04.2010

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
ѕредметный указатель
70AB computer proposal      578
8000 series proposal      578 580Ч581
Aberdeen Proving Ground      25 26 32 45 69 131 280 see
Access mechanism      see "Magnetic-disk storage access
Accounting machine      see "Tabulator"
Accumulator register      4 17Ч18 23 27 117 154Ч156 590Ч597
ACE (Automatic Computing Engine)      92 318Ч319 652n20
Address, defined      78
Address, relative form      326Ч327
Address, symbolic form      328 331 351Ч352 353
ADF (Advanced Disk File)      304 306 307Ч309 474Ч475 477
Advanced RAM (ADF progenitor)      301Ч302
Ahlin, Jack T.      357 358
Aiken, Howard H.      25Ч26 29Ч32 47 48 524
Airborne Computer Laboratory      300
Albers-Schoenberg, E.      242
Allen, Charles W.      678n100
Amdahl, Gene M., EDPM designer      178Ч179 420 423 670n65
Amdahl, Gene M., IBM LARC proposal      425Ч426
Amdahl, Gene M., joins IBM      179
Amdahl, Gene M., open addressing method      649n61
Amdahl, Gene M., resigns from IBM      431 670n43
Amdahl, Gene M., returns to IBM      581
Amdahl, Gene M., Stretch planning      431
American Airlines      516Ч522 557Ч558
American Bankers Association      498Ч501
American Society of Mechanical Engineers      647n35
Analog vs. digital devices      25 240
analog-to-digital conversion      274
Anderson, Arthur G.      533Ч535 553 554Ч555
Andrews, M. Clayton      261Ч262 549 686n79
ANelex company      490
Applied Programming department      347 357Ч358
Applied Science department, formation      85
Applied Science department, Magnetic Drum Calculator      95 96Ч97 100
Applied Science department, mathematical planning groups      100 143Ч144 165Ч166 170
Applied Science department, programs for Defense Calculator      326Ч327 332
Applied Science department, Scientific Computing Service      338Ч339 340 350
Applied Science department, Technical Newsletters      85Ч86 618n42
Applied Science department, TPM      122Ч123
Army Ballistic Research Laboratory      45Ч46 58 59 280 626n19 see
Army Ordnance Department      626n18 626n19 651n3 652n4 653n24
Arthur D. Little, Inc.      569
artificial intelligence      558Ч559
ASCC (IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator)      27Ч33 45Ч47 316Ч317 319Ч320
ASDD (Advanced Systems Development Division)      306 553Ч554
Assembly programs      see also "Autocoder" "SOAP" "SPS"
Assembly programs for 1401 computer      366
Assembly programs for 1620 computer      366
Assembly programs for 650 computer      351Ч352 353
Assembly programs for 701 computer (Defense Calculator)      325Ч332 347Ч348
Assembly programs for 702 computer      344 345
Assembly programs for 704 computer      352 354
Assembly programs for 705 computer      346 347 355Ч356
Assembly programs for 709 computer      359Ч360 361
Assembly programs for 7090 computer      367
Assembly programs, component of FORTRAN compiler      356
Assembly programs, purpose      325Ч326 652n20
Association for Computing Machinery      340
Astrahan, Morton M.      142 159 678n96
Astronomical Computing Bureau      24
AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Corporation)      6 513Ч514 see
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)      311 422 430 432 445 450
Atrubin, Allan J.      678n100
Auto-abstracting      556Ч557
Autocoder      345 346Ч347 355Ч356 362 366
Automatic group control      8Ч9 11
Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator      see "ASCC"
Automation research      547Ч548
B47 bombing and navigation system      130 625n1
B52 bombing and navigation system      625n1
Babbage, Charles      2Ч3 21 30 316
Backus, John W., FORTRAN      339Ч342 356 358 361 530
Backus, John W., joins IBM      335
Backus, John W., NORC performance study      419
Backus, John W., Speedcoding      336
Backus, John W., SSEC programmer      335Ч336 530 614n54
Bald Peak programming conference      368Ч370
Bank check mechanization      498Ч500
Bank of America      254 499
Bardeen, John      372Ч373
Barrier-grid tube      251
Bauer, Edward W.      641n61 642n87 669n36
Beattie, H.S.      407 accounting machine 481Ч482
Beattie, H.S., circuit standardization      406
Beattie, H.S., joins IBM      481
Beattie, H.S., Poughkeepsie laboratory manager      423 463 543
Beattie, H.S., Selectric typewriter      482 521
Beattie, H.S., small accounting machine      381
Beattie, H.S., stick printer      296 467 482Ч483
Beattie, H.S., to Poughkeepsie laboratory      59
Beckman, Frank S.      350 352 358 360Ч361 614n54
Beeby, Patrick A.      68In 138
Bell Telephone Laboratories, ferroelectric research      538 539
Bell Telephone Laboratories, relay calculators      593 620n64 626n8
Bell Telephone Laboratories, semiconductor patents      415
Bell Telephone Laboratories, transistors      372Ч375 380 382 393 417 426 428
Bell Telephone Laboratories, wire wrap      408
Bendix Aviation Corporation      490 508
Bergfors, Carl A.      612n25 649n70 662n12
Berkeley, Edmund C.      190 621n1 621n3 634n15
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer)      59 115 615n61 627n27
Binary counter      36Ч37
Binary search      289
Binary-coded decimal representation      39 137
Biquinary code      95Ч96 620n64
Birkenstock, James W., Defense Calculator planning      130Ч131 133Ч136 143Ч144 146
Birkenstock, James W., Engineering Research Associates contract      81
Birkenstock, James W., Forrester patent negotiations      269Ч271
Birkenstock, James W., joins IBM      81
Birkenstock, James W., printer test      489
Birkenstock, James W., product planning and market analysis head      174
Birkenstock, James W., Rabinow disk      646n17
Birkenstock, James W., San Jose involvement      282
Birkenstock, James W., transistor purchase agreement      402
Bistable circuit      see "Flip-flop circuit"
Blaauw, Gerrit A.      433 443 449 578 582 671n63
Bland, George F.      625n59
Blenderman, Louis H.      637n75
Bloch, Erich      175 237Ч239 248Ч250 255Ч256 444 446 454 540Ч541
Bloch, Richard M.      195
BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System)      260 447
Boehm, Elaine M.      649n61 671n65
Bombing and navigation systems      130 625n1
Boolean algebra      41 433
Booth, A.D.      690n153
Bouricius, Willard G.      336 347Ч348 657n91 686n79
Branch instruction      77 139 316Ч317 362Ч363 451 627n27
Branscomb, Charles E.      469 472Ч473
Brattain, Walter H.      372Ч373
Brillouin, Leon      531
Bristol University      539
Brookhaven National Laboratory      551
Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.      433 443 449 578 580 582 671n63
Brown, E.A.      670n36
Brown, Theodore H.      25
Brownlow, James M.      262Ч264
Bruce, George D.      663n36
Brunschweiger, A.      637n78
Brush Development Company      76
Bryant Computer Products      308 650n91
Bryce, James Wares, Aiken contact      25Ч26
Bryce, James Wares, chief engineer      10 35Ч36
Bryce, James Wares, invention record      35Ч36 610n3
Bryce, James Wares, joins CTR      8
Bryce, James Wares, magnetic recording investigations      189
Bryce, James Wares, Patent Development department      35 373 377Ч378
Bryce, James Wares, product contributions      11 13 14 23 27 30 31
Bryce, James Wares, relations with laboratory      35Ч36 610n3
Buchholz, Werner, Datatron studies      420 423Ч424 426
Buchholz, Werner, Defense Calculator planning      142 158
Buchholz, Werner, joins IBM      109
Buchholz, Werner, Stretch project      434 440 443 449 456 457
Buchholz, Werner, Test Assembly planning      112
Buchholz, Werner, TPM planning      117 132
Buchholz, Werner, TPM program      328
Buchholz, Werner, TPMII (IBM 702) planning      127Ч128 173 174Ч175 184
Buck, Dudley A.      538 568
Buffer storage      90 175 177Ч178 181 185 236Ч239 248Ч250 296
Bull Gamma 3 computer      461 465
Burks, Arthur W.      319 627n26
Burroughs Corporation      475 483 490 497 499 583 651n103
Bury, Roger M.      626n6
Buslik, Walter S.      203Ч204 207
BYTE      435
CADET computer      see "IBM 1620 computer"
Calculation control switch      23Ч24
Calculator vs. computer      52 61 613n40
Calling sequence      321Ч322 323 324 652n17
Cambridge University      59 321 338
Capacitor storage      167Ч168
Cape Cod System      246
Carlson, Bengt G.      446 454
Carroll, Fred M.      8 10 16
Carrying in arithmetic operations      37Ч41 42 43 154
Cathode-ray-tube memories      see "CRT memories"
Census Bureau      5 174 574Ч575 615n61 627n27
CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)      535
Chaining method of search      298 see
Channel      see Input-output channel
Character recognition      495Ч505 558
checking      see "Error detection and correction"
Chien, G.K.      680n123
Christiansen, Carl L.      225 637n75
Chu, Chuan      271Ч272
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)      310
Circuit packaging      see "SMS" "Vacuum
Clark, H. Kenneth      614n50
Class selection      13
Cline, Richard L.      363
COBOL language      364Ч365 see for
Cocke, John      433 442Ч443 445 449 581
Codd, Edgar F.      335 370Ч371 614n54 671n63
codes      76 82 86 95Ч96 112 114 170 173 593 620n64
Coincident-current selection      234Ч235 248Ч249 see "Magnetic
Collator      20 174 632n119
Collector in transistors      374
Columbia Machine (IBM Difference Tabulator)      22Ч23
Columbia University      2 22 24 27 523Ч524 530 607n2 see
Commercial Translator language      363Ч365 see for
COMPACT project      415
Compilers for COBOL      365Ч366 367
Compilers for Commercial Translator      365Ч366 367
Compilers for FLOW-MATIC      364
Compilers for Whirlwind algebraic language      341 656n79
Compilers, concept      340Ч341
Compilers, for FORTRAN      342 356Ч357 358 361 366Ч367 658n116
Compilers, PACT      349
Compilers, UNIVAC A-series      340 656n72
Complementation      12 41 44 139Ч140 590Ч593
Components Division      566Ч567
Computer (use of the word)      22 52 611n11
Computer architecture, defined      31
Computer Research Corporation      99
Computer science      556 566 688n114
Computer Usage Company      655n66
Comrie, Leslie J.      22 24 30
COMTRAN language      363Ч364 see
Conduction electrons      372
Consent Decree      271 575 674n2
Consolidated Engineering Corporation      99
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation      74Ч75 163
Constantine, Gregory, Jr.      257Ч258
Control Data Corporation      583
Control Instruments wire printer      483Ч484
Control Panel      17 18 19 85Ч86 89 315Ч316 320 333Ч334 352 462 468 see
Control programs      358Ч359 360Ч361 367 370Ч371 521
Coombs, John M.      639n34 686n79 688n122
Counihan, Richard G.      638n13
Counter      3 4 36Ч44
Courant, Richard      560
CPC (IBM Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator)      68Ч72 84 333Ч334 576
Crago, Robert P.      114 174 194 199 244
Craner, Edward      662n13
Crawford, David J.      148 152 251Ч252 257 259 669n36
Crawford, Perry O.      240 517Ч518
Cray, Seymour R.      685n57
Credit-card transaction accounting      495Ч496 502
Critchlow, Arthur J.      277Ч281 283 290 646n25
Crowe Cell      569
CRT memories in Whirlwind      243Ч245
CRT memories, barrier-grid tube      251
CRT memories, Williams-tube      see "Williams-tube memories"
Cryotron computer project      568Ч570
CTR (Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)      1 6Ч10
Current-switch circuits      395Ч398
Customer Assistance department      347 350 354
Cypress      311
Dahlgren Naval Proving Ground      47 183 673n112
Daly, George F.      9 14 23 202 610n3
Data communications      513Ч516 519Ч522
Data Processing Test Assembly      see "Test Assembly"
Data Synchronizer Input-Output Package      363
Data Transceiver      515Ч516
Datamatic 1000 computer      219Ч221
Datamatic Corporation      219 490
Datatron 220 (ElectroData)      475
Datatron studies (in IBM)      420Ч421 423Ч424 669n23
Dayger, Jonas E.      70 488 491
DCA (Digital Computer Association)      348
De Forest, Lee      65
DeCarlo, Charles R.      349Ч350 352 357 449 451
Deerhake, William J.      518Ч519 557 625n59
Defense Calculator      135Ч158 see
Defense Calculator, cost estimate      96
Defense Calculator, early planning      136Ч147
Defense Calculator, engineering model      156Ч158 160
Defense Calculator, first IBM computer to be produced      97
Defense Calculator, Havens delay unit      153Ч156
Defense Calculator, impact on TPM      123
Defense Calculator, influence of IAS computer      136 138Ч140 156
Defense Calculator, influence of TPM      129
Defense Calculator, start of project      95 130Ч136
Defense Calculator, subroutine linkage      323 324
Defense Calculator, testing and demonstration      157Ч158
Defense Calculator, training program      157
DeLano, Ralph B.      684n50
Deltamax      233 241Ч242
Demer, Fred M.      489
Demonstration programs      333 344
Design automation      411 547Ч548
DeWitt, David      666n81
Diagnostic programs      157 171
Dickinson, A. Halsey      36 46 373Ч378 611n8
Dickinson, Wesley E.      678n100
Differential analyzer      24Ч25 32
Digital Computer Newsletter      137 138
Digital vs. analog devices      25 240
DiMarco, Henry A.      643n110
Diodes, semiconductor      118Ч121 147Ч148 151Ч153 374 375 379
Disk      see "Magnetic-disk storage"
Do statement      342 343
Domenico, Robert J.      668n110
Dorrell, Carter E.      663n32
Doty, Charles R.      514Ч515
Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc.      163 332Ч333 339 348
DPD (Data Processing Division)      302 306 435 449 576Ч577
Drift transistors      390Ч395 425 433 436 437 444 446 447
Drum      see "Magnetic-drum auxiliary storage" "Magnetic-drum
DSD (Data Systems Division)      306 449 451 577Ч578
1 2 3 4 5 6
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