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Vogel S. Ч Vital Circuits: On Pumps, Pipes, and the Working of Circulatory Systems
Vogel S. Ч Vital Circuits: On Pumps, Pipes, and the Working of Circulatory Systems

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Ќазвание: Vital Circuits: On Pumps, Pipes, and the Working of Circulatory Systems

јвтор: Vogel S.


Most of us think about our circulatory system only when something goes wrong, but the amazing story of how it goes rightЧ"magnificently right," as author Steven Vogel puts itЧis equally worthy of our attention. It is physically remarkable, bringing food to (and removing waste from) a hundred trillion cells, coursing through 60,000 miles of arteries and veins (equivalent to over twice around the earth at the equator). And it is also intriguing. For instance, blood leaving the heart flows rapidly through the arteries, then slows down dramatically in the capillaries (to a speed of one mile every fifty days), but in the veins, on its way back to the heart, it speed up again. How?
In Vital Circuits, Steven Vogel answers hundreds of such questions, in a fascinating, often witty, and highly original guide to the heart, vessels and blood. Vogel takes us through the realm of biology and into the neighboring fields of physics, fluid mechanics, and chemistry. We relive the discoveries of such scientists as William Harvey and Otto Loewi, and we consider the circulatory systems of such fellow earth-dwellers as octopuses, hummingbirds, sea gulls, alligators, snails, snakes, and giraffes. Vogel is a master at using everyday points of reference to illustrate potentially daunting concepts. Heating systems, kitchen basters, cocktail parties, balloonsЧall are pressed into service. And we learn not only such practical information as why it's a bad idea to hold your breath when you strain and why you might want to wear support hose on a long airplane flight, but also the answers to such seemingly unrelated issues as why duck breasts (but not chicken breasts) have dark meat and why dustaccumulates on the blades of a fan.
But the real fascination of Vital Circuits lies neither in its practical advice nor in its trivia. Rather, it is in the detailed picture we construct, piece by piece, of our extraordinary circulatory system. What's more, the author communicates not just information, but the excitement of discovering information. In doing so, he reveals himself to be an eloquent advocate for the cause of science as the most interesting of the humanities. Anyone curious about the workings of the body, whether afflicted with heart trouble or addicted to science watching, will find this book a goldmine of information and oelight.

язык: en

–убрика: “ехнологи€/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

»здание: 1st edition

√од издани€: 1992

 оличество страниц: 315

ƒобавлена в каталог: 06.09.2009

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
ѕредметный указатель
"Design" in organisms      49Ч50 93Ч94 167Ч168
"Windkessel" model      117 118 288
Acceleration, force requirement      253
Acetylcholine      52 54 271
Adrenal gland      54Ч55
Adrenalin      52 54Ч55 271
Aerobic reactions      221 271
Air, thermoregulation in      179 see
Alligator      see also "Crocodilians heart" 83
Alligator, metabolic rate      8
Alveoli      271
Alveoli, hemoglobin loading      162
Alveoli, oxygen concentration      159 161Ч162
Alveoli, size and diffusion in      102
Amphibians      see also "Frogs"
Amphibians, circulatory circuits      14
Amphibians, heart      76Ч77 83Ч85
Amphibians, large blood cells      196
Amphibians, lymph hearts      208
Amphibians, renal portal systems      247Ч249
Anaerobic metabolism      221 254 271
Anatomy, fixation on      9 19 30 248Ч249
Ancestral forms and size      111Ч112
Ancestral forms vs. derived      78
Anemia      159 272
Aneurysm      17 45 122 272
Aneurysm, aortic      122 144Ч145
Aneurysm, cerebral      122
Aneurysm, ruptured      14 17
Angina pectoris      260 272
Angiography      272
Angioplasty      31 272
Animals      see Organisms
Anticoagulants      240
Aorta      14f 212
Aorta, blood pressure in      63Ч65
Aorta, change at birth      35
Aorta, crocodilians      83
Aorta, cross-sectional area      79
Aorta, flow speed in      16 79
Aorta, frog      85
Aorta, location      28 29
Aorta, wall thickness      120Ч121
Aortic valve, location      32
Aortic valve, pressure across      69
Archer fish      78
Aristotle      19 256
Arrhythmia      238 272
Arterial cushions      202Ч203
Arteries      11 14 272 see "Arterioles"
Arteries and LaplaceТs law      124
Arteries as pressure buffer      128 129
Arteries, capacitor action      117 118
Arteries, crustaceans      127
Arteries, necessary properties      121Ч123
Arteries, pressure in      65 69
Arteries, pulsation      45 46
Arteries, volume variations      116 117
Arteries, wall character      45
Arteries, wall stiffness      124Ч126 229Ч230
Arteries, wall structure      126Ч127
Arteries, wall thickness      120
Arteries, УWindkesselФ model      117 118
Arterioles      272
Arterioles, arrangement      197
Arterioles, muscles of      198 225 229
Arterioles, pressure in      69 85
Arterioles, wall thickness      121
Arteriosclerosis      229 272
Arteriovenous shunts      80 197 230 272
Arthropods      10 272 see "Insects" "Spiders"
Ascidians, hearts      24 136
Atherosclerosis      116 272
Atmosphere, oxygen content      157
Atmosphere, pressure      60 62 164
Atria (auricles)      14 273 see "Right
Atria (auricles), changes at birth      35
Atria (auricles), functional role      22Ч24
Atria (auricles), location      28
Atria (auricles), supercharger analogy      23 24
Atria (auricles), triggering heartbeat      54
Atrioventricular node      54 272
Author and unvented trunk      62Ч63
Author as ambulatory manometer      64
Author as human animal      15
Author meets ValsalvaТs ghost      151
Author, batrachiophilia      53 55
Author, circulatory disabilities      4Ч5 151
Author, corporeal insignificance      265
Author, dietary peccadillos      265
Author, dislike of exercise      5
Author, hairless head      16
Author, limitations as artist      30
Author, rehabilitation      5 170
Axial accumulation      201Ч202
Axial accumulation and arterial cushions      202
Axial accumulation and skimming flow      202
Ballistae      126
Balloon angioplasty      31
balloons      17 117
Balloons and LaplaceТs law      118Ч120 144Ч145
Balloons, aneurysms      17 122
Balloons, model for science      259
Barometer      61 273
Bear, non-hibernating      180
Beaver tail, countercurrent exchanger      190Ч191
Bernard, Claude      219Ч220 250
BernoulliТs principle      149Ч150 273
Beta-adrenergic blockers      52 230 250
Biology, biologists      see also "Evolution"
Biology, biologists, anatomical fixation      9 19 30 248Ч249
Biology, biologists, animals vs. computers, using      53 84Ч85
Biology, biologists, bias of large animal      83 111Ч112
Biology, biologists, comparative viewpoint      4 36 47 108 127Ч128
Biology, biologists, convergence      127Ч128
Biology, biologists, feminist subject      55Ч56
Biology, biologists, history      43Ч44
Biology, biologists, physics, detachment from      84 138
Biology, biologists, structure and function      19 167Ч168 248Ч249
Biology, biologists, systems, integration of      152 155
Biology, biologists, terminological fixation      9
Biology, biologists, textbook bashing      10 16 135 205 209
Biology, biologists, УdesignФ in organisms      49Ч50 93Ч94 167Ч168
Birds, blood pressure      68Ч69 76
Birds, body temperatures      179
Birds, bones, vented      63
Birds, cardiac output      111 147
Birds, circulatory circuits      11Ч15 76
Birds, evolution      12
Birds, heart structure      29
Birds, hemoglobins      164
Birds, legs, countercurrent exchanger      187Ч189 190
Birds, nasal countercurrent exchanger      192
Birds, red blood cells      172
Birds, wading in cold water      187Ч189
Birds, warmbloodedness      7Ч8 178
Birth, circulation shifts      35Ч36
Birth, hemoglobin change      163
Blankets, electric      219Ч220
Blood      see also specific "Blood entries"
Blood cells      see "Red blood cells" "White
Blood clotting      203 237Ч241
Blood clotting, anticlotting system      240
Blood clotting, anticoagulants      240
Blood clotting, cascade of reactions      240
Blood clotting, coagulation      240
Blood clotting, hazard of clot      238
Blood clotting, hemophilia      238
Blood clotting, positive feedback      218 239 240Ч241
Blood clotting, role of platelets      239
Blood composition, control      220 221Ч226
Blood composition, organs controlling      241Ч246
Blood flow speed      see also "Flow speeds"
Blood flow speed vs. oxygen delivery      157Ч158
Blood flow speed, adrenalin on, effect of      55
Blood flow speed, vessels, in different      16 17 79
Blood pressure      see also "Pressure"
Blood pressure and capillary filtration      204Ч205
Blood pressure and exercise      146 227
Blood pressure and exsanguination      128
Blood pressure and posture      129Ч131
Blood pressure and Starling hypothesis      204Ч205
Blood pressure in atherosclerosis      116
Blood pressure in cold      227
Blood pressure in coronary arteries      87
Blood pressure in kidneyТs capillaries      244
Blood pressure vs. heartbeat rate      146
Blood pressure vs. height, manometric      65Ч68
Blood pressure, abnormally high      229Ч230
Blood pressure, adrenalin and      55
Blood pressure, arteries vs. veins      128
Blood pressure, brain      227
Blood pressure, cheating measurement      64Ч65
Blood pressure, control      220 226Ч230
Blood pressure, first measurement      117
Blood pressure, giraffe      66
Blood pressure, horse      67
Blood pressure, left ventricle      115Ч116
Blood pressure, measurement      61 64Ч65
Blood pressure, normal human value      63
Blood pressure, reptiles      67
Blood pressure, right atrium, estimating      130
Blood pressure, sensors for      227Ч230
Blood pressure, subatmospheric      70
Blood pressure, systemic vs. pulmonary      76
Blood pressure, systolic vs. diastolic      63 65
Blood pressure, various animals      68Ч69 110
Blood pressure, various locations      69Ч70
Blood proteins      see "Proteins"
Blood vessels      see also "Arteries" "Capillaries" "Veins"
Blood vessels and biological УdesignФ      94
Blood vessels and LaplaceТs law      120Ч121
Blood vessels, aneurysms      17 45 122
Blood vessels, arterial cushions      202
Blood vessels, collagen wall lining      239
Blood vessels, compliance of      116
Blood vessels, diversity of size      136
Blood vessels, injury to      239
Blood vessels, muscle of walls      20
Blood vessels, necessary non-rigidity      116Ч117 229
Blood vessels, peristaltic      136
Blood vessels, size readjustment      92Ч93
Blood vessels, size vs. blood viscosity      200Ч203
Blood vessels, variable volume      116
Blood vessels, wall thickness      121
Blood viscosity      see "Viscosity"
Blood volume after exsanguination      213
Blood volume and size of animal      111
Blood volume and venous volume      129
Blood volume, autoregulation      225Ч226
Blood volume, control      224Ч226
Blood volume, human      15
Blood, adrenalin in      54
Blood, carbon dioxide transport      167
Blood, components      15
Blood, convective medium      177 181Ч184
Blood, dissociation curve, fetal      161
Blood, dissociation curve, human      161
Blood, hematocrit      15Ч16 86 110
Blood, hemoglobin concentration      110 159
Blood, overall role      6Ч7
Blood, pathway through body      9Ч15
Blood, pathway through fetus      34Ч35
Blood, pathway through heart      30
Blood, pathway, pre-Harvey      44
Blood, supply to various organs      242Ч243
Blood, total volume      110
Blood, viscosity      110
Blood, viscosity vs. vessel size      200Ч202 203
Blood-brain barrier      249Ч250 273
Blood-brain barrier, diffusion across      250
Blood-brain barrier, transit, pharmaceuticals      250
Blubber, cost to make      180
Blubber, insulation      179Ч180
Body size      see "Size"
Body temperature      see also "Temperature"
Body temperature, autoregulation      177
Body temperature, control      220 230Ч232
Body temperature, core vs. periphery      180 230Ч232
Body temperature, cost vs. size      263
Body temperature, diurnal variation      180
Body temperature, insects in flight      178
Body temperature, skin      230Ч232
Body temperature, uniformity      175Ч180
Body temperature, warmbloodedness      7Ч8 76 178Ч180 182
Body water and blood volume      224Ч226
Body water and hematocrit      224
Body water in cells      225
Body water, compartments      224Ч225
Body water, interstitial      206 225
Body water, plasma      225
Bohr shift      163 166 167 273
Bone marrow and red blood cells      245
Brain and pituitary gland      247
Brain in control systems      221
Brain, blood-brain barrier      249Ч250
Brain, cerebrospinal fluid      249Ч250
Brain, heat production      176
Brain, hydrocephalus      250
Brain, local cooling      190
Brain, maintaining blood pressure      227
Brain, relative blood supply      243
Branches in pipes and vessels      78 87
Branches in pipes and vessels, MurrayТs law      91Ч93
Branches in pipes and vessels, retia mirabilia      188Ч189
Branches in pipes and vessels, sizes and costs      87Ч93
Breathholding, underwater swimming      222
Breathholding, Valsalva maneuver      151
Breathing and heart performance      150Ч151
Breathing in blood oxygen control      221Ч224
Breathing vs. air composition      221Ч222
Breathing, high altitude      222
Breathing, hyperventilation      222
Bulk flow      see "Convection"
Burrowing      164
Bypass surgery      see "Cardiac bypass surgery"
Calorie (cal) (energy)      18 274
Capacitor      117 118
Capillaries      14 274
Capillaries and principle of continuity      78Ч79
Capillaries in blood volume control      225
Capillaries of lungs      102 196 198Ч199
Capillaries, animal size vs. density      165
Capillaries, arrangement      197
Capillaries, density in tissue      110Ч111 165
Capillaries, discovery      46 196
Capillaries, filtration      204Ч205
Capillaries, fit of red blood cells      196Ч197 203Ч204
Capillaries, flow across walls      205Ч206
Capillaries, flow speed      16 79
Capillaries, lack of muscle      198
Capillaries, maternal and fetal      34
Capillaries, MurrayТs law, violation      91
Capillaries, passage of white blood cells      203Ч204
Capillaries, postulated existence      46
Capillaries, pre- and postcapillary muscles      225 229
Capillaries, pressures in      69Ч70 85Ч86 204Ч207
Capillaries, proliferation, high altitude      164
Capillaries, shortness      86
Capillaries, Starling hypothesis      204Ч205 207 225Ч226 243
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