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Plummer J.D., Deal M.D., Griffin P.B. Ч Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice, and Modeling
Plummer J.D., Deal M.D., Griffin P.B. Ч Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice, and Modeling

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Ќазвание: Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice, and Modeling

јвторы: Plummer J.D., Deal M.D., Griffin P.B.


Unique in approach, this book provides an integrated view of silicon technology Ч with an emphasis on modern computer simulation. It describes not only the manufacturing practice associated with the technologies used in silicon chip fabrication, but also the underlying scientific basis for those technologies. Modern CMOS Technology. Crystal Growth, Wafer Fabrication and Basic Properties of Silicon Wafers. Semiconductor Manufacturing Ч Clean Rooms, Wafer Cleaning and Gettering. Lithography. Thermal Oxidation and the Si/SiO2 Interface. Dopant Diffusion. Ion Implantation. Thin Film Diffusion. Etching. Backend Technology. For anyone interested in Fabrication Processes.

язык: en

–убрика: Computer science/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

»здание: US edition

√од издани€: 2000

 оличество страниц: 817

ƒобавлена в каталог: 27.10.2010

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
ѕредметный указатель
"Knock on" use of term      396
$PtSi_2$      693
$Si/SiO_2$ interface changes      332Ч357
$Si_3N_4$ growth and oxidation kinetics      347Ч350
$TiSi_2$ deposition      567 568 716Ч718
Abnormal, or secondary, grain growth      761
Activation      484
Active regions, formation of      52Ч56
Adhesion      737
Aerial image      251
AES (Auger electron spectroscopy)      174 176 651
Airy's disk      211Ч213 215
AL deposition      565 566
AL plasma etching      649 650
AL reflow      705
AL spiking      692
Alkali ion contamination      38 153 310
Alloy junction bipolar transistors      8 9
Amorphous layer formation      479
Amorphous layer regrowth      482
Anisotropic arrival angle distribution      544
Anisotropic etching      75 76 611
Anisotropy      75 76 611 616
Antimony      127 452
Antireflection Coating (ARC)      230 281
APCVD      see "Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD)"
application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs)      2
Arrival angle distribution      543 567 587 654
Arsenic      72Ч74 344 477 478 487
Arsine      561
Aspect Ratio (AR)      510
Aspect Ratio Dependent Etching (ARDE)      641 663
ATHENA (Silvaco)      272 274 312 345 347 403 598Ч600 653 671Ч674 737 744 745 753
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD)      512 513Ч525
Atomic force microscopy (AFM)      299 726
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)      601
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)      174 176 651
Autodoping      522Ч525
Back-end technology      681Ч786
Back-end technology, basic concepts      687Ч715
Back-end technology, contacts      688Ч695
Back-end technology, defined      681
Back-end technology, dielectrics      707Ч715
Back-end technology, historical development      687 688
Back-end technology, interconnects/vias      695Ч707
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment      715Ч725
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, contact formation      719Ч721
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, first-level dielectric processing      718 719
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, global interconnects      721 722
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, IMD deposition and planarization      723 724
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, siticided gates and source/drain regions      716Ч718
Back-end technology, manufacturing mcthods/equipment, via formation      724
Back-end technology, measurement methods      725Ч737
Back-end technology, measurement methods, chemical and structural measurements      732Ч734
Back-end technology, measurement methods, electrical measurements      726Ч732
Back-end technology, measurement methods, mechanical measurements      734Ч737
Back-end technology, measurement methods, morphological measurements      726
Back-end technology, models/simulation      737Ч776
Back-end technology, models/simulation, Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP)      744Ч746
Back-end technology, models/simulation, diffusion in polycryslalline materials      762Ч765
Back-end technology, models/simulation, electromigration      765Ч776
Back-end technology, models/simulation, grain growth      753Ч762
Back-end technology, models/simulation, reflow      746Ч753
Back-end technology, models/simulation, silicide formation      738Ч744
Back-end technology, technolngies/models, limits and future trends in      776Ч780
Band model      18Ч21
Band model, introduction of dopants      19
Bandgap temperature dependence      27
Barrel etcher      628
Barrier layers, properties      696
Barrier layers, refractory metal compounds as      695
Barrier layers, refractory metal silicides as      694
Base collector junction      40
Bell Telephone Laboratories      7Ч9
BESOI      145 46
Bias sputtering      549Ч551
Bias Temperature Stressing      311
Bias-sputter deposition      530 549Ч551
BICMOS technology      42 43
BICs (Boron Interstitial Clusters)      497
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)      4 39Ч41
Bird's beak effect      292
Blanket tungsten deposition      567
Bleaching      230
Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) cells      94
Boltzmann distribution function      25
Bond model      18Ч19
Bond model, introduction of dopants      19
Bonded and etch-back technology for SOI (BESOI)      145
Boron      9 61 62 72 127 414 415 428 429 452 469 478
Boron Interstitial Clusters (BICs)      497
Boron TED      497
Bosch process      675
BPSG (borophosphosilicate glass)      85 86 709 718
Brandt-Kitagawa effective charge      473
Brownian motion      157 158
Buried layers      65Ч70
Capacitance-Voltage (CV) method      301 399
Carbon in silicon      142
Carrier lifetime      31 177
Cathode dark space      541
Cathode sheath      543
Cesium      396
channeling      461
Charge to breakdown      311
Charged point delects      134 135 436
Chemical cleaning      159 184
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)      102Ч105 289 511Ч530 699
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD)      512 513Ч525
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD)      530 551 564 586 587
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD)      512 525Ч527 582 583
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)      512 527Ч530 584Ч587
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), sub-atmospheric CVD (SACVD)      564
Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP)      58 86 87 107 279 570 675 713 714 744Ч746
Chemically amplified (CA) resist      225
Child's law      468
Chip size      1Ч3
Chip yield      182
Chlorosilane      102
CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) tools      180
Clean factories      157Ч159 165 169Ч173 181Ч184
Clean rooms      193Ч195
Cleaning chemistry      159 184
Climb process      99Ч100
CMOS technology      12 42 43 49Ч92
CMOS technology, process flow      50Ч90
CMOS technology, process flow, active region formation      52Ч56
CMOS technology, process flow, buried and epitaxial layers      65Ч70
CMOS technology, process flow, contact and local interconnect formation      82Ч84
CMOS technology, process flow, contact and local interconnect formation, multilevel metal formation      84Ч90
CMOS technology, process flow, field implants under LOCOS regions      63Ч65
CMOS technology, process flow, gate formation      71Ч76
CMOS technology, process flow, N and P well formation      60Ч63
CMOS technology, process flow, process options for active region and well formation      63Ч70
CMOS technology, process flow, shallow trench isolation      57Ч60
CMOS technology, process flow, source/drain formation      80Ч82
CMOS technology, process flow, substrate selection      51 52
CMOS technology, process flow, tip/extension (LDD) formation      76Ч80
cmp      see "Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP)"
Cold-wall reactors      512
Collimated sputter deposition      551Ч554
Color charts      300
Complementary' MOS      see "CMOS technology"
Computer-aided design (CAD)      6 203
Concentration dependent diffusion      409 436
Conductivity      371
Conformal coverage      509 589
Contact formation      719Ч721
Contact printing      208
contacts      681 688Ч695
Contacts, resistance      727
Contacts, resistivity      689
Contacts, spiking      692
Contaminant      152 157 173
Cosine arrival angle distribution      544
Cosine emission, or diffuse emission      534
Covalent bonding      14
Critical area, chips      152
Critical modulation transfer function (CMTF)      227 228
Critical particle size      153
Crookes dark space      541
Cross-bridge Kelvin structure      728 729
Crystalline      13
Crystalline precipitate      101
Crystalline semiconductor materials      13
Crystals, carbon in silicon      142
Crystals, defects in      97Ч101
Crystals, diameters      104
Crystals, manufacturing methods/equipment      109Ч111
Crystals, measurement methods      111Ч21
Crystals, measurement methods, electrical measurements      111 112
Crystals, measurement methods, electron microscopy      119Ч121
Crystals, measurement methods, etches      117 118
Crystals, measurement methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)      118 119
Crystals, measurement methods, Hall effect measurements      115Ч117
Crystals, measurement methods, hoi point probe      112 113
Crystals, measurement methods, physical measurements      117
Crystals, measurement methods, sheet resistance      113Ч115
Crystals, models/simulation      121Ч144
Crystals, models/simulation, Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth      122Ч128
Crystals, models/simulation, print defects      131Ч138
Crystals, models/simulation, zone refining and FZ growth      128Ч131
Crystals, oxygen in silicon      138Ч142
Crystals, pulling apparatus      110
Crystals, raw materials and purification      101 102
Crystals, structure of      94Ч97
Crystals, technologies/models, limits and future trends in      144Ч146
Crystals, volume defects in      101
Crystals, wafer preparation/specification      105Ч109
Cu deposition      570 571
Cu interconnects      779
Current crowding      727
Curvature (surface)      748
CV method      301
CV profiling      399
CVD      see "Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)"
Czochralski (CZ) crystal growing apparatus      103
Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth      122Ч125 537
Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth, dopant incorporation during      125Ч128
Czochralski method      97 102
Damage annealing      479Ч482
Damage production      476Ч479
Damascene process      87 704 724
Damascene process, dual      724
Dash etch      118
DC sputter deposition      539Ч546
Deal-Grove model      267 293 312 313 322Ч329 344 345 349 515 741
Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)      180 488
Deep P+ diffusions      41
Deep UV (DUV)      222
Deep UV (DUV), resists      225 226
Defect density numbers      152 153
Defect etches      117 118
Degenerate semiconductors      26
Degree of anisotropy      616
Degree Of Planarization (DOP)      703 704
Deionized water (DI)      172
Denuded zone      162 168 170
DEPICT (Avant!)      247
Deposition      509Ч608
Deposition, basic concepts      511Ч154
Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)      511Ч530
Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD)      512 513Ч525
Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD)      530 586 587
Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD)      512 525Ч527 582 583
Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)      512 527Ч530 584Ч587
Deposition, common deposition methods (table)      555
Deposition, historical development      511 512
Deposition, manufacturing methods      554Ч571
Deposition, manufacturing methods, $SiO_2$ deposition      563Ч565
Deposition, manufacturing methods, $Si_3N_4$ deposition      561Ч563
Deposition, manufacturing methods, $TiSi_2$ deposition      567 568
Deposition, manufacturing methods, $WSi_2$ deposition      567 568
Deposition, manufacturing methods, Al deposition      565 566
Deposition, manufacturing methods, Cu deposition      570 571
Deposition, manufacturing methods, epitaxial Si deposition      556Ч558
Deposition, manufacturing methods, polycrystalline Si deposition      558Ч561
Deposition, manufacturing methods, Ti deposition      566
Deposition, manufacturing methods, Ti-W deposition      566
Deposition, manufacturing methods, TiN deposition      568 569
Deposition, manufacturing methods, W deposition      567
Deposition, measurement methods      572
Deposition, models      573Ч600
Deposition, models, for deposition simulations      573 574
Deposition, models, in physically based simulators      574Ч581
Deposition, Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)      511 512 530Ч554
Deposition, Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), evaporation method      511 531Ч539
Deposition, Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), sputter deposition method      511 539Ч554
Deposition, simulations      590Ч601
Deposition, simulations, of deposition using a physically based simulator      590Ч598
Deposition, step coverage      509
Deposition, technologies/models, limits/future trends in      601 602
Depth of focus      214
Devitrification      292
Diazoquinone molecules      224
DIBL (Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering)      373 499
Dibroane      561
Dichlorosilane      102
Dielectrics      707Ч715
Dielectrics, first level      681 707 718
Dielectrics, jniermetal dielectrics (IMDs)      681 707 708 723
Diffraction      209Ч212
Diffusion      371Ч451
Diffusion, basic concepts      374Ч392
Diffusion, diffused layers, design/evaluation of      389Ч392
Diffusion, dopant solid solubility      375Ч377
Diffusion, error-function solution near a surface      384 385
Diffusion, from a macroscopic viewpoint      377Ч379
Diffusion, Gaussian solution, in an infinite median      380 381
Diffusion, Gaussian solution, near a surface      381 382
Diffusion, historical development      374Ч392
Diffusion, intrinsic diffusion coefficients of dopants in silicon      386Ч388
Diffusion, manufacturing methods and equipment      392Ч395
Diffusion, measurement options      395Ч403
Diffusion, measurement options, 2D electrical measurement using scanning probe microscopy      400Ч402
Diffusion, measurement options, capacitance voltage      399
Diffusion, measurement options, inverse electrical measurements      402 403
Diffusion, measurement options, sheet resistance      398 399
Diffusion, measurement options, SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry)      396 397
Diffusion, measurement options, spreading resistance      397 399
Diffusion, measurement options, TEM cross section      399 400
Diffusion, models/simulations      403Ч439
Diffusion, models/simulations, activation energy for self-diffusion and dopant diffusion      426
Diffusion, models/simulations, charge state effects      436Ч439
Diffusion, models/simulations, chemical equilibrium formulation for dopant-defect interactions      432Ч434
Diffusion, models/simulations, dopant diffusion and J and V      422Ч426
Diffusion, models/simulations, dopant-defect interactions      426Ч432
Diffusion, models/simulations, interfacial dopant pileup      415Ч417
Diffusion, models/simulations, numerical solutions of the diffusion equation      403Ч405
Diffusion, models/simulations, oxidation-enhanced or -retarded diffusion      419Ч422
Diffusion, models/simulations, physical basis for diffusion at atomic scale      417Ч419
Diffusion, models/simulations, segregation      413Ч415
Diffusion, models/simulations, simplified expression for modeling      434Ч436
Diffusion, successive diffusion steps, effect of      388 389
Diffusion, technologies/models, limits and future trends in      439Ч442
Dill model      267Ч269
Dimethylaluminumhydride (DMAH)      566
Direct bandgap semiconductor      30
Direct fluxes, topography models      575Ч577 654
Dishing      745
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