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Petrie A., Sabin C. — Medical Statistics at a Glance
Petrie A., Sabin C. — Medical Statistics at a Glance

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Название: Medical Statistics at a Glance

Авторы: Petrie A., Sabin C.

Аннотация:

Univ. College London, UK. Basic introduction to the underlying concepts of medical statistics and guide to commonly used procedures. Key features include: worked examples to accompany each topic, and emphasis on computer analysis of data rather than hand calculations. To be used as a reference and revision summary.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Математика/Вероятность/Статистика и приложения/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 2000

Количество страниц: 138

Добавлена в каталог: 05.06.2005

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
$2\times 2$ table      61 62—63
$r \times c$ contingency table      64 65—66
$r^2$      67 69
$\alpha$ (alpha)      44
$\beta$ (beta)      44
+/- symbol      87
a priori probability      20 109
Addition rule      20
Adjusted $R^2$      76
Agreement assessing      93—95
Agreement, limits of      93-94
All subsets model selection      80
Allocation, bias      31 34
Allocation, random      see “Randomization”
Allocation, systematic      34
Allocation, treatment      34
Alternative hypothesis      42
Altman's nomogram      84 85—86 119
Analysis of covariance      75
Analysis of variance, F-ratio      55 57 72
Analysis of variance, Kruskal — Wallistest      56 57
Analysis of variance, non-parametric      56 57
Analysis of variance, one-way      55—57
Analysis of variance, repeated measures      101-102
Analysis of variance, table      71 76 121 125
anova      see “Analysis of variance”
Area under the curve (AUC)      101 102 103
Arithmetic mean      16 (see also “Mean”)
ASCII format      10
Assessment bias      31 34
Association in contingency table      64 65—66
Association in correlation      67
Assumptions, checking      82—83
Autocorrelation      105
Autocorrelation coefficient of lag k      105
Autocorrelation function, partial      105
Automatic selection procedures      80
Autoregressive models      105
Average      16—17
Backwards selection      80
Bar chart      14 15
Bartlett's test      56 82
Bayes theorem      109
Bayesian methods      109—111
Bias      31 93 96
Bimodal distribution      14
Binary (dichotomous) variables      8
Binary (dichotomous) variables in logistic regression      78
Binary (dichotomous) variables in meta-analysis      98
Binary (dichotomous) variables in multiple regression      75
Binary (dichotomous) variables, dependent      80
Binary (dichotomous) variables, explanatory      80
Binomial distribution      23 58
Binomial distribution, normal approximation of      23 58
Blinding      34 96
Blocked randomization      34
Blocking      32
Bonferroni correction      45
Box (box-and-whisker) plot      14 18 82 121
British Standards Institution repeatability coefficient      93 95
Carry-over effects      32
Case-control studies      31 40—41
Case-control studies matched      40 41
Case-control studies unmatched      40—41
cases      40
Cases incident      40
Cases prevalent      40
Categorical data (variables)      8
Categorical data, assessing agreement of      93 94
Categorical data, coding      10 11
Categorical data, error checking      12
Categorical data, graphical display of      14
Categorical data, more than two categories      64—66
Categorical data, multiple regression with      75
Causality in observational studies      30
Censored data      9 106
Censored data, left-      106
Censored data, right-      106
Central limit theorem      26
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) distribution      22 112 113
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test for covariates (model Chi-square)      79
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test for trend in proportions      66—65 66
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test for two proportions, independent data      61 62—63
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test for two proportions, paired data      62 63
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test in $2\times 2$ table      61 62—63
Chi-squared ($\chi^2$) test in $r \times c$ table      64 65—66
CI      see “Confidence intervals”
Classification table      79
Clinical practice, applying results      97
Clinical trials      34—35 36
Clinical trials, avoiding bias in      34
Clinical trials, blinding in      34
Clinical trials, critical appraisal      96
Clinical trials, cross over designs in      32 33
Clinical trials, endpoints      34
Clinical trials, ethical issues      35
Clinical trials, intention-to-treat analysis      35
Clinical trials, on-treatment analysis      35
Clinical trials, parallel designs in      32 33
Clinical trials, phase I/II/III      34
Clinical trials, placebos in      34
Clinical trials, profile      36
Clinical trials, protocol      35
Clinical trials, size of      35 84—86
Cluster randomization      34
Clustered column (bar) chart      14
Cochrane Collaboration      98
Coding data      10 11
Coding missing values      11
Coefficient logistic regression      78
Coefficient of variation      19
Coefficient partial regression      75 76
Coefficient regression      70
Coefficient repeatability/reproducibility      93 95
Cohen's kappa ($\kappa$)      93 94
Cohort studies      31
Cohort studies, dynamic      37
Cohort studies, fixed      37
Cohort studies, historical      37
Collinearity      76
Column (bar) chart      14 15
Complete randomized design      32
Conditional probability      20 109
Confidence intervals (CI)      28—29 87
Confidence intervals (CI) 95%      28
Confidence intervals (CI) for correlation coefficient      68 69
Confidence intervals (CI) for difference in two means      52
Confidence intervals (CI) for difference in two medians      53
Confidence intervals (CI) for difference in two proportions independent groups      61 62
Confidence intervals (CI) for difference in two proportions paired groups      62 63
Confidence intervals (CI) for mean      28 29 46
Confidence intervals (CI) for mean difference      49—50 51
Confidence intervals (CI) for median      47 112 115
Confidence intervals (CI) for median difference      49 50—51
Confidence intervals (CI) for odds ratio      41
Confidence intervals (CI) for predictive values      91
Confidence intervals (CI) for proportion      28 29 58
Confidence intervals (CI) for regression coefficient      73
Confidence intervals (CI) for relative risk      38 39
Confidence intervals (CI) for slope of regression line      73 74
Confidence intervals (CI) in meta-analysis      98—99 100
Confidence intervals (CI) vs hypothesis tests      43
Confidence intervals (CI), interpretation of      28—29 46 52 96
Confidence intervals (CI), multipliers for calculation of      112 113
Confidence intervals (CI), power and      44
Confidence limits      28
Confounding      31
Consent, informed      35
CONSORT statement      35 36
Contingency tables $2\times 2$      61 62—63
Contingency tables rxc      64 65—66
Contingency tables, ordered categones in      65
Continuity correction      47 58
Continuous numerical data      8 14
Continuous probability distributions      20—21 22—23
Continuous time series      104
Control group      31
Controls      31 34 96
Controls in case-control studies      40
Controls, positive/negative      34
Correlation      67—69
Correlation coefficient assumptions      67
Correlation coefficient, confidence interval for      68 69
Correlation coefficient, hypothesis test of      68 69
Correlation coefficient, misuse of      67
Correlation coefficient, non-parametric      68
Correlation coefficient, Pearson      67—68 69 113 117 124
Correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank      68 69 113 117 124
Correlation coefficient, square of $(r^2)$      71 72 73—74
Correlation, auto-      105
Correlation, linear      67—68
Correlation, serial      104 105
Correlogram      105
Counts      23
Covariance, analysis of      75
Covariate      75
Cox proportional hazards regression model      107 108
Critical appraisal      96
Cross-over designs      32 33
Cross-sectional studies      30—31
Cross-sectional studies, repeated      30 31
Cut-off values      91 92
Cyclic variation      104 105
DATA      8—9
Data, censored      9 106
Data, coding      10 11
Data, derived      9
Data, describing      16—19
Data, entry      10—11
Data, error checking      12 13
Data, graphical display of      14—15
Data, missing      11 12
Data, presentation      87—89
Data, transformations      24—25
Data, types      8—9
Dates, checking      12
Dates, entering      10—11
Deciles      18
Degrees of freedom (df)      22 29
Delimiter      10
Dependent (outcome, response) variables      70
Dependent (outcome, response) variables, binary      80
Dependent (outcome, response) variables, numerical      80
Describing data      16—19
Design, study      30—33
Design, study, cross-over      32 33
Design, study, factorial      32—33
Design, study, parallel      32 33
Design, study, randomized      32
df (degrees of freedom)      22 29
Diagnostic tests      90—92
Diagnostic tests in Bayesian framework      109—111
Diagrams      87
Dichotomous variables      see “Binary variables”
Discrete numerical data      8 14
Discrete time series      104
Discriminant analysis      80—81
Distribution-free tests      see “Non parametric tests”
Distributions, bimodal      14
Distributions, continuous      20—21 22—23
Distributions, discrete      20 23
Distributions, empirical      14 20
Distributions, frequency      14 20
Distributions, probability      20
Distributions, sampling      26—27
Distributions, skewed      14 15
Distributions, symmetrical      14 16
Distributions, theoretical      20—23
Distributions, unimodal      14
Dot plot      14 15
Double-blind trial      34
Dummy variables      75
Duncan's test      55
Effect (of interest)      44 87
Effect (of interest) in meta-analysis      98
Effect (of interest) in sample size calculation      84
Effect (of interest), importance of      96
Effect (of interest), power of test and      44
Efficacy, treatment      34
Empirical frequency distributions      14 20
Endpoints      34
Endpoints primary      34
Endpoints secondary      34
Epidemiological studies      30
Errors checking      12 13
Errors in hypothesis testing      44—45
Errors residual (unexplained variation)      55 71
Errors typing      12
Ethical committee      35
Evidence-based medicine (EBM)      96—97 98
Exclusion criteria      35
Expected frequencies      61 63 64 66
Experimental studies      30 31
Experimental units      32
Explanatory (independent, predictor) variables      70
Explanatory (independent, predictor) variables in logistic regression      78
Explanatory (independent, predictor) variables in multiple regression      75—76
Explanatory (independent, predictor) variables, categorical      75
Explanatory (independent, predictor) variables, numerical      80
Exponential model      107
F-distribution      22 112 114
F-ratio      55 57 72
F-test      55 72
F-test in multiple regression      76
F-test to compare variances      82 83
Factorial study designs      32—33
Fagan's nomogram      110
False negatives      90
False positives      90
Fisher's Exact Test      61
Fitted value      70 72
Fixed-effect model      98
Follow-up      37
Follow-up, losses to      37 38
Forest plot      98 100
Forms, multiple      10
Forwards selection      80
Frame, sampling      26
Free format data      10
frequency      14 61 64
Frequency distributions      14 20
Frequency, observed and expected      61 62 64 65—66
Frequency, relative      14
Frequentist probability      20 109
Gaussian distribution      see “Normal distribution”
Geometric mean      76 17
Gold-standard test      90
Goodness-of-fit      71 72 76
Gradient of regression line      70
Graphical display      14—15
Graphical display, identifying outliers      15
Graphical display, one variable      14
Graphical display, two variables      14—15
Hazard      106—107
Hazard, ratio      107
Hazard, relative      107
Healthy entrant effect      31 37
Helsinki Declaration      35
Heterogeneity of variance      82 98
Heterogeneity, clinical      99
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