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Bardi J.S. Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time
Bardi J.S.  Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time









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: Calculus Wars: Newton, Leibniz, and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time

: Bardi J.S.

:

Now regarded as the bane of many college students existence, calculus was one of the most important mathematical innovations of the seventeenth century. But a dispute over its discovery sewed the seeds of discontent between two of the greatest scientific giants of all time Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
Today Newton and Leibniz are generally considered the twin independent inventors of calculus, and they are both credited with giving mathematics its greatest push forward since the time of the Greeks. Had they known each other under different circumstances, they might have been friends. But in their own lifetimes, the joint glory of calculus was not enough for either and each declared war against the other, openly and in secret.
This long and bitter dispute has been swept under the carpet by historians perhaps because it reveals Newton and Leibniz in their worst light but The Calculus Wars tells the full story in narrative form for the first time. This vibrant and gripping scientific potboiler ultimately exposes how these twin mathematical giants were brilliant, proud, at times mad and, in the end, completely human


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Academic societies      see Scientific societies
Acaderrue des Sciences      62 65 66 77 180
Act of Settlement      174
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, account of Protogaea in      150
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, founded      115 116
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, Leibniz on planetary motion      131132
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, Leibniz on Walliss book      153154
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, Leibniz replies to Fatio      177179
Acta Eruditorum Lipsienium, review of Principia      131
Alchemy      22 54 112113 114
Algarotti, Francesco      137
Anagrams      9899
Analyse de Infinunent Petits (LHopital)      141
Analytical geometry      8
Ancient chronology, Newtons      113114
Anne, Queen of England      2 173174 175 182 204
Anni mirabilis      28
Anonymity in publishing      184 196197 212213
Anthmetica universalis (Newton)      192
Apple legend      3435
Archimedes      7
Arnauld de Pomponne, Simon      57 58
Arnauld.Antoine      106 123 146
Art, and mathematics      115
Astronomy, Newton and      129
Ayscough, Rev W      25
Balance spring dispute (Hooke/Huygens)      68 81
Barrow, Isaac      8 3637 41 4243
Bayle, Pierre      154
Berlin Society of Sciences      18891
Bernoulli (Johann) on      207 209
Bernoulli, Jacob      116 132 156 157
Bernoulli, Johann, brachistochrone problem and      155156 157
Bernoulli, Johann, calculus wars and      152 206210 216217 223
Bernoulli, Johann, Leibniz and      142 206208 2162117 223
Bernoulli, Johann, LHopital textbook and      141
Bernoulli, Johann, on Commeraum Epistolicum      206208
Bernoulli, Johann, Principia error found      209
Bernoulli, Nikolaus      209
Bignon, Abbe      200
Binary numbers      180
Binomial theorem (Newton)      91 9799 122
Birch,Thomas      43
Bludworth,Thomas      39
Bodkin incident      2829
Boerhaave, Hermann      234
Boineburg, Johann Christian von      5456 60 64
Boineburg, Philip William von      76
Book publishing      see Publishing industry
Boyle, Robert      4344 6566 6970
Brachistochrone problem      155157
Brand, Heinrich      105
Breisach, siege of      17
British mint      3 162163 169173
Bruno, Giordano      48
Brunswick Luneberg family, history of      14445 14750
bubonic plague      3133
Bunyan, John      32 48
Burnet, Thomas      149 153 162 167 181 203
Calculating machines, mechanical      6769 7879 91 94 154
Calculus wars      vui-ix 1011 Plagiarism
Calculus wars, anonymity in      viii 184 197 212213
Calculus wars, Bernoulli and      152 206210 216217 223
Calculus wars, Chamberlayne and      212 218219
Calculus wars, Cheyne and      181 182
Calculus wars, Fatio and      175179
Calculus wars, final disposition of      241242 246247
Calculus wars, Keill collaboration with Newton      196197 213
Calculus wars, Keill vs. Leibniz      184187 193196 212213
Calculus wars, Keills reputation impugned      219
Calculus wars, Leibniz attacks gravity theory      224228
Calculus wars, Leibniz defends himself      viiiix 210212 214215
Calculus wars, Leibniz learns of Commeraum Epistolicum      206207
Calculus wars, Leibniz writes History and Origin of the Differential Calculus      221222
Calculus wars, Leibnizs anger aroused      207208 211 218219
Calculus wars, Leibnizs anonymous attacks on Newton      1011 153154 196197
Calculus wars, Leibnizs review of Opticks      182 196197
Calculus wars, Newton continues after Leibnizs death      ix 232233
Calculus wars, Newton Leibniz letters (1716)      222224
Calculus wars, Newtons anger aroused      197 218
Calculus wars, Newtons anonymous account      215
Calculus wars, Newtons unpublished replies to Leibniz      213
Calculus wars, Principia scholium and      220
Calculus wars, Royal Society and      193196 198201 219
Calculus wars, scientific community involvement      ix 214 218 219220
Calculus wars, Walhs and      151154
Calculus wars, Wolf on      215216
Calculus, attributed to Leibniz      5 9 122
Calculus, attributed to Newton      151152 200
Calculus, description of      67 35
Calculus, geometry and      7 9 35
Calculus, inevitability of invention of      2930
Calculus, Leibniz invents      viii 9 5152 8687
Calculus, Leibniz publications on      viii 9 116117 122123
Calculus, LHopital textbook on      141
Calculus, Newton and Leibniz methods compared      15152
Calculus, Newton invents      viiviii 5 3031 3536
Calculus, Newtons writings on      56 3537 243244 De
Calculus, notation for      8687 123 180 215 244
Calvin, John      107
Cambridge University, and plague epidemic (1665)      33
Cambridge University, Newton lecturer at      30 3638 4149 192
Cambridge University, Newton studies at      25 2731 36
Caroline, Princess of Wales      227
Cassini, Giovanni      80
Catelan, Abbe      156
Catholic/Protestant reconciliation, Leibniz on      107
Cavaheri, Bonaventura      8 63 72
Chair, folding      145146
Challoner, William      172173
Chamberlayne, John      212 218219
characteristica universalis      52 (see also Universal language)
Charles I, King of England      1921
Charles II, King of England      31 6465 66 133134
Charta Volans (Leibniz)      210212
Cheyne, George      181 182
China      146 241
Choet, Jean-Robert      140
Christian churches, reunification of      107
Chronology, Newtons      113114
Chuno, Johann Jakob      188
Clarke, Samuel      227
Coffee houses      119
Coin clipping      170
Colbert      77 81
Collins, John, De Analasi and      41 192 199
Collins, John, encourages Newton to publish on calculus      95
Collins, John, Leibniz and      72 8386 8990 9293 94
Collins, John, posthumous papers of      192 198200
Collins, John, writes Histonola      90
Colors, Newtons theory of      4 33 4349
Comet appearances      31
Comets, orbits of      119 129
Commeraum Epistolicum (Royal Society)      198201 206208 212 218219
Conduitt.John      30 237 238
Conn, Abbe      208 209 220 222 223 225 232
Counterfeiting      170 171
Craig, John      121122
Cromwell, Oliver      21 31 32 134
Crowne, William      17 80
Dahl, Michael      173174
De Analysi (Newton), Collins and      41 192 199
De Analysi (Newton), Leibniz and      94 96
De Analysi (Newton), published      192
De Analysi (Newton), written      3738
De Casibus Perplexis (Leibniz)      53
De Motu Corporum (Newton)      121
De Principio Indivdui (Leibniz)      24
De quadrature curvarum.      see On the Quadrature of Curves
Demonstmtiones Catholicae (Leibniz)      107
Descartes, Rene, exile of      48
Descartes, Rene, invents analytical geometry      8
Descartes, Rene, Leibniz paper modeled on Geometry      116
Descartes, Rene, Leibniz studies      72
Descartes, Rene, Newton studies      30
Descartes, Rene, on vortex theory of planetary orbitals      129
Deschales, Claude Milliet      87
Dialogue (Galileo)      48
Differential calculus      121122
Differentials, defined      6
Dilherr.Johann Michael      53
Disease, in seventeenth century      32
Dissertaoo de Arte Combinatori (Leibniz)      5253
Egypt, proposed war against      58 59 60
Einstein, Albert, on Opticks      2
Empiricism      130
England, civil war of      1921
England, French Huguenots and      133 137
England, Leibniz visits      6465 6771 9496
England, Leibnizs calculus introduced to      122
England, living conditions in      32
England, plague epidemic (1665)      3133
England, war against France      137
Epistola posterior (Newton)      93 9799
Epistola prior (Newton)      9091
Ernst August, Duke of Hanover      108 111 144145 148 164 174
Este, House of      145 147 148 149
Evelyn, John      3133 38
Faoo de DuiUer, Nicholas      138141 160161 175179 180181 193
Fermat, Pierre      8
Flamsteed.John      161162 211 214
Fluxions and fluents, method of      viiviii 9 35 98 151152
Fogel, Martin      105
Folding chair      145146
France, declares war (1688)      135136
France, Huguenot persecution in      133
France, Newtons reputation in      234
France, prepares for war with Holland      56 (see also Franco-Dutch War)
France, war against England      137
Franco-Dutch War      60 64 97 132
Franklin, Benjamin      2
Freret, Nicolas      113114
Friesenegger, Mauros      16
Gahleo      21 48
Gallois, Abbe      77
Gasto, Prince of Florence      114
Geology, Leibniz and      112 150
Geometna (Bonaventura)      63 72
Geometry (Descartes)      30 116
Geometry, calculus and      7 9 35
Geometry, history of      79
George I, King of England      150 205206
George Ludwig, Crown Prince of Hanover      150 164166
George Ludwig, elector of Hanover      174175 188 204205 229230 King
Germany, first scientific journal in      115
Germany, political structure of      5556
Germany, Thirty YearsWar and      1517
Gout      230
Grand Alliance      135
Grantham      28 3336
Gravesande, Willem Jacob      234
Gravitation, Newton on nature of      130 225
Gravitation, phenomena explained by      128129
Gravitation, universal law of      3334 128130 131 224228
Great fire of London      3840
Gregory, David      128 184
Gregory, James      5 8 84 90
Grimaldi, Claudius Philip      146
Gullivers Travels (Swift)      191
Halley, Edmond      119121 123124
Hanover, court of Leibnizs career at      7778 103104 105112 148
Hanover, court of, life style of      164166
Hanover, dukes of      104 (see also Ernst August Duke Johann Duke
Hanover, Germany, in seventeenth century      106
Hanover, Germany, modern city      101103
Hartzingk, Peter      108109
Harz Mountain mines      108112
health care, Leibniz on      146147
histories, of noble families      144145 147150
Histortola (Collins)      90 9495
History and Origin of the Differential Calculus (Leibniz)      221222
History of Fluxions (Raphson)      220221
Holland, imminent war with France      56
Holland, Leibniz visits      9697
Holland, Newtons reputation in      234
Holland, plague in      31
Holland, war with France      see Franco-Dutch War
Holy Roman emperor      147148
Holy Roman Empire      55
Hooke, Robert, accomplishments of      67
Hooke, Robert, calls Fatio Newtons ape      141
Hooke, Robert, death of      181
Hooke, Robert, dispute with Huygens      68 81
Hooke, Robert, dispute with Leibniz      68
Hooke, Robert, disputes with Newton      45 4648 68 89 124 211
Hooke, Robert, invents mechanical calculating machine      69
Hooke, Robert, Newton correspondence on planetary motion      118119
Hooke, Robert, Oldenburg accused of spying by      81
Hooke, Robert, on Leibnizs calculating machine      6768
Hooke, Robert, optics work of      43 46
Hooke, Robert, writes Micrographia      47 89
Hudde, Johann      8 72 96
Huguenots      133 137
Huygens, Christian, Fatio and      176
Huygens, Christian, Hooke dispute      68 81
Huygens, Christian, Leibniz and      6163 72 153
Huygens, Christian, mathematical contributions of      8
Huygens, Christian, meets Newton      139
Huygens, Christian, Oldenburg and      80
Huygens, Christian, on Newtons calculus      153
Huygens, Christian, on Newtons optics work      49 89
Huygens, Christian, optics work of      43
Huygens, Christian, reputation of      62
Infinite series      30 63
Integral calculus      63 122123
Integral sign, invention of      86
Integrals, defined      6
Inverse square law of attraction      119 120 124
James II, King of England      121 134135 136
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, alliances of      5657
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, background of      104
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, death of      108
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, funds windmill project      110
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, offers job to Leibniz      7778
Johann Friedrich, Duke of Hanover, relationship with Leibniz      106 110
John Casimir, King of Poland      56
Jones, William      192
Journal Literaire de la Haye      212 213 215
Journal pubhcaoon      4142 7980 115 Journal Philosophical
Keill, John, accusations against Leibniz      184185 193 212
Keill, John, Commercium Epistolicum and      200 201
Keill, John, Leibniz answers charges      187188 19394 195196
Keill, John, letter to Chamberlayne      219
Keill, John, Newton and      196197 213
Keill, John, Wolf on      214215 219
Kepler, Johannes      7 48
Keplers laws      128
Kochanski, Adam      149
Konig, Samuel      9091
Korugsmarck, Philip Christopher von      165166
Lagrange, Joseph-Louis      236
Lasser, Herman Andrew      55
Lbrary at Hanover      93 104105
League of Augsburg      135
Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van      80 97
Legal reform in Holy Roman Empire      55
Leibniz, Catharina Schmuck      17
Leibniz, Friedrich      1718
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, accomplishments of      240241
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, alchemy and      54
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