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Rips J.L. — The psychology of proof: deductive reasoning in human thinking
Rips J.L. — The psychology of proof: deductive reasoning in human thinking

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Название: The psychology of proof: deductive reasoning in human thinking

Автор: Rips J.L.

Язык: en

Рубрика: Математика/Алгебра/Математическая логика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 1994

Количество страниц: 449

Добавлена в каталог: 21.03.2005

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
A Natural-Deduction System (ANDS)      150
Abelson, R.P.      290 413n8
Abstraction      254. See also Instantiation; Generalization; Matching
Acquisition of logical principles      See Learning; Innateness
Adams, E.      125
Adams, M.J.      232 239 402n7
Additivity requirement      312—314 317
Adkins, D.C.      16
Ajjanagadde, V.      186 300
Algorithm for proofs      See Computer theorem proving; PSYCOP/PSYCOP+; Resolution theorem proving; Tree proof
Analogical inference      11 389 391
Anderson, A.R.      48—50 383
Anderson, J.R.      60 68 109 276 281 300 418n5
Anderson, S.B.      307
Argument evaluation      3 18 19 149 261
Argument evaluation task difficulty of      312—313 317
Argument evaluation with categorical syllogisms      233—239
Argument evaluation with multiple variables      254—260 265
Argument evaluation with sentential connectives      150—157 170 184 310 311
Argument reversal      201 202 209
Argument reversal and resolution system      213
Argument reversal, soundness of      209—213 218—220
Argument reversaland semantics      207
Argument, definition of      3
Arguments, of predicates      51. See also Permanent/Temporary names; Variables
Aristotelian syllogism      See Syllogism
Aristotle      19 25 57 58 176 233 239 380 402n6 402n7 408n3
Armstrong, S.L.      411 n5
artificial intelligence      See also Algorithm for proofs; Programming language
Artificial intelligence and computer theorem proving      64—66
Artificial intelligence and deductive problem solving      97—99
Artificial intelligence and nondeductive inference      269 270 389 390
Artificial intelligence and syllogistic reasoning      23
Assertion sensitivity      72
Assertions (of a proof)      See also Domain/subdomain/superdomain; Goal/subgoal; Inference rule; Supposition
Assertions (of a proof), definition of      68
Assertions (of a proof), intermediate      73
Assertions (of a proof), working memory for      111 112
Associates, paired      271
Atmosphere effects      See Syllogism
Atomic sentence in tree proofs      75—77 131
Atomic sentence, definition of      51
Atomic sentence, token/type      141
Au,T.K.-F.      401n2
Automated deduction      See Artificial intelligence; Computer theorem proving; Resolution theorem proving
Availability heuristic      246 339—347
Availability, of rules      153—156 242 243 260 265 407n3
Axiomatic system      See Logic
Bach, E.      390
Backward chaining      71. See also Backward rule; Transitivity
Backward rule and self-constraint/promotion      84—90 404n9
Backward rule in PSYCOP/PSYCOP+      105 115—121 129—131 140 195—202 209—213
Backward rule, definition of      68
Backward/forward distinction      See Forward/backward distinction
Baddeley, A.D.      112
Bara, B.G.      23 232 234 244—247 349 352 356 358 361 408n2 409n6 415n3 415n4 415n6
Baron, J.      408n9
Barston, J.L.      21
Barwise, J.      57 94 186 214 345 401n1 404n6
Beattie, J.      408n9
Begg, I.      56 228 229 231 244 303
Belief      344 389-390.
Belief and categorization      278 279 289 292 296—297 300 301 391 411n4
Belief and deduction      99 300 301
Belief and nonmonotonic logic      411n7
Belief revision      58—62
Belief, coherence of      11 12 298
Believability effect      21 22 238 340 342 343 371 414n2 416—417n10
Belnap, N.D.      48—50 383 384 403n3
Benacerraf, P.      214
Bergmann, M.      203 254 351
Beth, E.W.      74
Bever.T.G.      176
Biconditional      91 178 179.
Binding, of variables      186 187 227 269 300 399.
Binet test      15
Birnbaum, L.      65 389 417n3
Bishop, E.      103
Black, J.B.      413n8
Bledsoe, W.W.      83 84 90
Bobrow, D.G.      273
Boer, S.E.      404n5 411n8
Boolos, G.      67
Borkowski, L.      52
Bower, G.H.      347
Boyer, R.S.      90
Brachman, R.J.      186 291
Braine, M.D.S.      xi 15 18 32 49 50 57 112 115 178 184 305 314—319 327 403n4 405n4 406n1 406n2 412n2
Brecht, B.      377
British Museum Algorithm      64 71 72 74 315—316
Brooks, L.      280
Bruell, P.      84
Burt, C.      15
Byrne, R.M.J.      xi 15 244 333 348 349 352—362 371 374 385 405n4 407n3 414n3 415n3 415n4 415n7 416n10
Canonical proof      125 131—137 145—147
Carey, S.      280 291
Carpenter, P.A.      26 171 417n11
Carroll, J.B.      15 17
Carroll, J.M.      176
Carroll, L.      12
Categorical sentence      227—231
Categorization      xi 269 410—411n3
Categorization and schema theory      291—293 411n5
Categorization as deduction      277 278 281 289
Categorization as explanation      281 282
Categorization as induction      278-—281 391
Categorization, causal theory of      282—290 293 300 411n4
Category, artificial      277 278
Category, basic-level      281
Category, contrast class      282—290 (passim)
Category, goodness of Tit      281
Category, membership      277—282 (passim) 289 296 410—411n3 411n4
Category, natural      277 278 280 282
Category, property      278 279 281 282 292 410—411n3 411n4
Category, representatives      280
Category, subset/superset      277
Causal theory      See Categorization
Ceraso, J.      22 244
Chamber, B.      308
Chang, C.C.      203
Chapman, J.P.      22 238 244
Chapman, L.J.      22 238 244
Chase, W.G.      26 171—175 371
Chater, N.      411n7
Cheng, P.W.      15 183 303 304 319—332 334 336 412n3 412n4 413n4 413n9
Cherniak, C.      12 67
Chierchia,G.      401n1
Children's reasoning      xi. See also Mental model; Learning; lnnateness
Chomsky, N.      10
Church's Theorem      66 67 194
Church's thesis      67 351
Church, A.      57 66 67 351
Circumscription      295—297. See also Nonmonotonic logic
Clare, T.      294
Clark, H.H.      26 171—175 333 371
Classical predicate logic (CPL)      See also Conditional; Inference rule; Logic Sentential Syllogism
Classical predicate logic (CPL) and tree proofs      79
Classical predicate logic (CPL) vs. PSYCOP/PSYCOP+      122 124 177 209—215
Classical predicate logic (CPL) vs. scholastic logic      228 229
Classical predicate logic (CPL), completeness of      33 (see also Completeness)
Classical predicate logic (CPL), decision procedure      66—68 74 138
Classical predicate logic (CPL), proof algorithm, improved      74
Classical predicate logic (CPL), proof procedure      67
Classical predicate logic (CPL), quantifier-free form, translation to      90—94 209 210 213—215
Classical predicate logic (CPL), rule system for      42—48 51—56
Classification      See Categorization
Clausal form      See Resolution theorem proving
Clement, C.A.      26
Clocksin, W.F.      61 65 98 401n3 410n1
Cognitive economy      194
Cohen, L.J.      378 392 395 396 414n1
Collins, A.M.      109 280 291 391
Collins, G.C.      330
Completeness      See also PSYCOP/PSYCOP+
Completeness, logical      33 64 77 90 122 124 137
Completeness, psychological      124 397
Comprehension of conditionals      (see biconditional; conditional; implicature; content effect)
Comprehension of connectives      171 186 336 337
Comprehension of negation      (See Negative sentence)
Comprehension of proofs      157—166 184
Comprehension of story      291
Comprehension of text      167 402n4
Comprehension vs. deduction      12 13 402n4
Comprehension, levels of      402n4
Computational complexity      63—68 297.
Computational efficiency      63 64 84.
Computational level      379
Computer theorem proving      See also Artificial intelligence; Resolution theorem proving; Tree proof
Computer theorem proving and problem-solving      94—99
Computer theorem proving, Cook's theorem      67 68
Computer theorem proving, decision procedure      66—68 74 405n1
Computer theorem proving, General Problem Solver (GPS)      73
Computer theorem proving, heuristics      64 66 73 74 77 83 97
Computer theorem proving, proof procedure      67 74
Computer theorem proving, quantifier representation      90 (See also Resolution theorem proving)
Computer theorem proving, question-answering      95—97 149
Computer theorem proving, search      64 66—68
Computer theorem proving, theoretical limits      66—68
Computer theorem proving, undecidability theorem      66 67
Concept      411n5. See also Categorization
Conclusion sensitivity      72 74 311
Conditional      See also Biconditional; Implication; Selection task
Conditional and biconditional      91 178 179 343 404n5
Conditional and quantifier      92 93 193 196 201 210—211 227 414n2
Conditional perfection      See Invited inference
Conditional syllogism      26 171 176—179 181 184 258 261 346 347 408n8
Conditional, conterfactual      48 390 410—411n3
Conditional, hypothetical syllogism      71 (see also Transitivity)
Conditional, intensional/extensional if      48 49 178 397
Conditional, interpretation of      178 179 327 331 332 343—345 394 395 403n4 404n5
Conditional, material conditional      69 125 320 321 325 327
Conditional, transformation of, in PSYCOP/PSYCOP+      104 124 125 128 129 133 138 186 213
Conditional, transitivity      69—72 95—96 98
Conditionalization (conditional proof)      41 43—47 116 125.
Connectionism      186 293 300 385
Connective      x 26 261
Connective and natural deduction      227
Connective, comprehension of      171 395—397
Connective, CPL rules for      42—50
Connective, hybrid rules for      73
Connective, multi-place      314
Connective, quantifier-free form      91
Conrad, F.G.      17 47 104 150 156 325 406n1
Constants, logical      189 190.
Content effects      See also Believability effect; Elaboration effect
Content effects in argument evaluation      155 340—347
Content effects in selection task      318—335 (passim) 345—346 413n5
Content effects in syllogisms      see Believability effect
Content effects, interpretation of conditionals      179 182 183 343 345 414n2
Content effects, proof comprehension      165
Contingency      344
Control strategy , depth-first strategy      123 126
Control strategy in automated deduction      97 98
Control strategy in PSYCOP/PSYCOP+      112 121—123 128 137 138 317
Conversational convention      See Implicature
Converse, of conditional      178 179 181 395
Cook's theorem      67 68 405n1
Cook, S.A.      67 68 405n1
Cooper, R.      57 401n1 404n6
Copi, I.M.      36 52 254
Corcoran, J.      57 402n6
Cosmides, L.      319 322 327—334 413n4 413n1 414n11
Cox, J.R.      183 318 328
Criscuolo, G.      294
Cummins, D.D.      26 179 414n1
Cut Elimination Theorem      75
Darwin, C.      xii 336
Darwinian algorithm      See evolutionary theory; Social contract theory; Social exchange
Davidson, D.      viii 11 384
Davis, M.      79
Decision procedure      See Classical predicate logic
decision-making      99 300 341 389
Deducibility      32—34 42 136 238 249 350 402n1.
Deduction      See also Inference rule; Logic; PSYCOP/PSYCOP+; Reasoning; Syllogism
Deduction and planning      see Planning
Deduction as problem-solving      see Problem-solving
Deduction System Hypothesis      viii—x 384 385
Deduction system, justification of      378—389
Deduction system, properties of      123 124
Deduction Theorem      402n1
Deduction, automated      see Computer theorem proving
Deduction, backward      see Backward rule
Deduction, centrality of      10—14 28 391 402n4
Deduction, forward      see Forward rule
Deduction, levels of      379 383—385 391 400 417n1 418n5
Deduction, psychometric approach      see Psychometrics
Deduction, question-answering      95—97
Deduction, rule-based vs. non-rule-based      303 304 318 339 340
Deduction, set effect      123
Deduction, theories of      xi 3 26 27 30 73 103 104 112 115 269 303—305 376 377 399
defaults      269 291—298
Defeasible inference/reasoning      60 61 270 293 294.
DeJong, G.      279
deKleer.J.      98 111 298
Dennett, D.C.      viii 11 214 384
Denny, J.      303
Deontic system      323 324 334 335 412n1 413n5 413n9 413—414n11.
DeSoto, C.B.      26
Diagram, reasoning by      227 269 347—349 353.
Dickstein, L.S.      23 232—239 362 409n4
Difficulty of task (syllogism)      157 232 236 237 356—358 361 362 364—366 368 409n5
Direct/indirect procedure      314—317
Disjunction      76—90 (passim) 133 134 314
Disjunctive normal form      366
Disjunctive syllogism      See Syllogism; Inference rule
Domain/subdomain/superdomain      See also Assertion; Goal/subgoal; Inference rule; Supposition
Domain/subdomain/superdomain and control strategy      121—123
Domain/subdomain/superdomain and dependency link      110 111
Domain/subdomain/superdomain and halting theorem      129—131 139—142
Domain/subdomain/superdomain and memory structure in PSYCOP/PSYCOP+      167—170
Domain/subdomain/superdomain, definition of      39 40
Domain/subdomain/superdomain, immediate sub/super-domain      39 139 140
Donovan, C.      227
Dowty, D.R.      399
Doyle, J.      98 111 298
Dummett, M.      374 378 403n3
Elaboration effects      343—345 371 414n2.
Embretson, S.      17
Entailment      See Semantic entailment
Erickson, J.R.      xi 23 25 28 340 348 349 369
Ericsson, K.A.      5
Estes, W.K.      204
Euler circle      23 24 28 261 347—349 358 369
Evans, J.St. B.T.      5 18 21 26 42 178 180 183 238 246 336 342 343 345 408n8 408n9 413n4
Evolutionary theory      334—336. See also Social contract theory; Social exchange
Exclusivity, of quantifiers      194. See also Inference rule
Existential presupposition      See Presupposition; Implicature
Explanation-based learning      279
External proof (PSYCOP/PSYCOP +)      158—162
Factor analysis      16—18. See also Mental ability; Intelligence test
Fallacies      178 382.
Falmagne, R.J.      26
familiarity      341—346. See also Availability; Believabihty
Family resemblance      280
Fan effects      276. See also Memory
Figure effect      237
Figure, syllogistic      26 237 362
Fikes, R.E.      98
Fillenbaum, S.      26 343 345 404n5 414n2
Fine, K.      36
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