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Cohen M.R., Nagel E. Ч An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method
Cohen M.R., Nagel E. Ч An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method



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Ќазвание: An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

јвторы: Cohen M.R., Nagel E.

јннотаци€:

An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method is a college level primer on logic. This book was widely used by scholars especially those studying economics as an introduction to logical thought in preparation for intellectual discourse. Ludwig von Mises was known to say that all students of economics should read this book as a first step in their training as economists.


язык: en

–убрика: ћатематика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1937

 оличество страниц: 479

ƒобавлена в каталог: 19.05.2013

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
A forteriori arguments      77 116
Abelard      96
Absolute priority, fallacy of      385
Absorption, principle of      124
Abstract, all propositions and systems are      140 396Ч397
Abstractions      371Ч375
Abstractive theories      397Ч399
Accident, and the Predicables      237Ч238
Accident, fallacy of      377Ч378
Added determinants, inference by      73
Addition, logical      122
Affirmative propositions      36
Agreement, method of      251Ч256
Alexander, of Macedon      354 356
Alternative propositions      45
Alternative propositions, contradictory of      69
Alternative propositions, equivalence to hypothetical and disjunctive propositions      64Ч65
Alternative syllogism      100Ч101 105
Ambiguity      225
Analogy, and formation of hypotheses      221Ч222
Analogy, and induction      286Ч288
Analogy, and metaphor      369
Analysis, abuses of      383 385
Antecedent      8 44
Antecedent, fallacy of denying      99
Antilogism      91Ч94
Apodosis      8
Archimedes      407Ч413 442
Argumentum ad hominem, fallacy of      380
Aristotelian sorites      95
Aristotle      v vi vii 17 34 76 82 87 88 110 132 177 186 187 228 232 234Ч238 273Ч275 372 420 454
Arithmetic mean      304Ч306
Array, Besian      446
Art, and logic      357Ч362
Association, principle of      124
Asymmetry, of relations      114
Authenticity, of historical data      326Ч329
Authority, and scientific method      193
Averages, statistical      303Ч310
Axioms, consistency and independence of      143Ч147
Axioms, fertility of      143
Axioms, for categorical syllogism      78Ч79
Axioms, function of in system      129Ч133
Bacon, Francis      245
Bain, A.      436 445
Beethoven      352
Begging the question, fallacy of      379
Bell, E.T.      433
Bentham      236 447
Berkeley, Bishop      384 458
Binomial theorem, and mathematical probability      164
Blackstone      378
Bolyai      144 417
Boole, George      112
Bradley, F.H.      34 455 457
Buckle, H.T.      316
Buddha      352
Bukharin      458
Butler, Bishop      151
Caesar, Julius      354
Cantor, Georg      113 146
Categorical propositions      33Ч44
Categorical propositions, symbolical representation of      124Ч125
Causality, and invariant relations      245Ч249
Certainty, in logic      19 186
Champollion      329
Change, and logic      176
Classes, calculus of      121Ч126
Classification      223Ч224 242 372
Coefficient of dispersion      311
Commands, and propositions      28
Commutation, principle of      123
Comparative method, in history      344Ч347
Complex conception, inference by      74
Complex constructive dilemma      106
Complex destructive dilemma      106
Composition, fallacy of      377
Composition, principle of      124
Compound propositions      44Ч48
Compound propositions, equivalence between      63Ч65
Compound propositions, opposition between      68Ч75
Comte, Auguste      228
Conclusion      8
Concomitant Variation, Method of      261Ч264
Conditional propositions      33 44
Confucius      352 354
Conjunctive propositions      46
Conjunctive propositions, their contradictories and equivalents      69Ч70
Connexity, of relations      114
Connotation of terms      30Ч33
Consequent      8 44
Consequent, fallacy of affirming      98
Consistency of axioms      143Ч147
Contradiction, principle of      123 181 183Ч184
Contradictory propositions      53 55 66 68
Contradictory terms      59
Contraposition, of categorical propositions      59Ч60
Contraposition, of hypothetical propositions      64
Contrary propositions      55 66 71
Contrary terms      59
Converse subaltern      56 66 74
Conversion of propositions      58Ч59
Conversion of relations      63
Copernicus      213
Copula      30
Correlation, measure of      312Ч315
Correlation, of relations      115
Counting, its nature      291Ч293
Court procedure, weighing of evidence in      347Ч351
Craig, John      325
Criticism, in aesthetics      357Ч362
Crucial experiments      219Ч220
Dante      360
Darwin, Charles      197
De Morgan, A.      112 165 208 221 325 382 424 429 430 457
De MorganТs theorem      70
De MorganТs Theorem, algebraic proof      125
Dedekind, R.      113 146
Deduction, and experimental methods      266
Deduction, and induction      275Ч279 393
Deduction, in development of hypotheses      202Ч206
Deduction, in pure mathematics      135Ч137
Deductive system, nature of      Chap. VII
Definiendum      228
Definiens      228
Definition, and generalization in mathematics      150
Definition, and system      142
Definition, and the Predicables      234Ч238
Definition, denotative      229
Definition, explicit and implicit      136 232
Definition, nature of      224Ч233
Definition, nominal      227Ч229
Definition, real      230Ч233
Definition, rules for      238Ч241
demonstration      see "Proof"
Demonstration, example of fallacious      413Ч417
Demonstration, what it establishes      407Ч413
Denotation of terms      30Ч33
Denotative definitions      229
Derivative measurement      300
Determination, in logical implication      12
Deviation numbers, in statistical methods      303 310Ч312
Dewey, John      vi 350
Diagrammatic representation of categorical propositions      39Ч41
Dichotomous division      243
Dictum de omni et nullo      87
Difference, method of      256Ч259
Differentia, in doctrine of Predicables      235Ч236
Dilemma      105Ч109
Disjunctive events, and their probabilities      161
Disjunctive propositions      46Ч47
Disjunctive propositions, contradictory of      69
Disjunctive propositions, their equivalent hypothetical and alternative propositions      64Ч65
Disjunctive syllogism      101Ч102
Dispersion numbers, in statistics      303 310Ч312
Distribution, of terms      37Ч39 58 62
Distribution, principle of      124
Division      241Ч244
Division, fallacy of      377
Dodgson, C.L.      77 121 174 431
Dr. Johnson, Samuel      241
Duhem, Pierre      217 399
Duns Scotus      17
Duquesnoy, Adrien      328
Einstein, A.      213 215 384 399
Elimination, and function of experiment      210 251 255 266
Elimination, and the syllogism      77
Elizabeth, Queen      341Ч342
Entailment      127
Enthymeme      78
Enumeration      291Ч293
Epicurus      352
Equiprobability      159 165
Equivalence, between categorical syllogisms      87Ч91
Equivalence, between mixed syllogisms      103
Equivalence, of propositions      55 57Ч65 90Ч91 141Ч142
Euclid      18 132 143 144 174 175 278 413 417
Euler, L.      39
evidence      see "Probability"
Evidence, and historical testimony      334Ч340
Evidence, and logic      3Ч5
Evidence, and procedure in court      347Ч351
Evidence, and scientific method      394
Evidence, demonstrative or conclusive      5Ч8
Evidence, partial or probable      13Ч16
Exceptive propositions      37
Excluded middle, principle of      123 181 184Ч185
Exclusive linearity, fallacy of      385
Exclusive particularity, fallacy of      387
Exclusive propositions      37
Existential import of categorical propositions      41Ч44
Existential import of categorical propositions, in immediate inference      58 62Ч63
Existential import of categorical propositions, in square of opposition      68
Existential import of categorical propositions, in syllogism      91
Experiment, and measurement      294Ч301
Experiment, function of      215Ч221 265 266
Extension of terms      30Ч33
Extensive qualities      296Ч297
Facts, and classification      224
Facts, and hypotheses      215Ч221
Facts, and scientific method      199 201 391Ч392
Falk, J.S.      321
Fallacies, formal, verbal, and material      376Ч382
Fallacies, in statistics      316Ч322
Fallacies, in use of scientific method      382Ч390
False disjunction or opposition, fallacy of      386
False hypotheses, value of      207Ч208
Faraday, M.      399
Fertility of axioms      143
Fictions, logic of      367Ч375
Figures of categorical syllogism      81Ч84
Fixation of beliefs, methods of      193Ч196
Fling, F.M.      329
Form, in critical evaluations      367
Form, in language      118
Form, in logic      10Ч12
Form, not a constraining force      12
Foucault      219
Fraenkel, O.      349
France, Anatole      216 358
Frege, G.      113 146
Freud, S.      443
Fuller, Governor      349
Fundamental measurement      297
Galen      82
Galileo      204Ч206 208 278 380 399 408 444
GamblerТs fallacy      168
Gauss, K.F.      380
General propositions      50Ч51
Generalization, and induction      14 277Ч279 282Ч284
Generalization, and logic      186Ч187
Generalization, in mathematics      148Ч150
Genetic fallacy      388Ч390
Genus      32 235
Goclenian sorites      95
Grammar and logic      16Ч18
Grassmann, H.G.      417
Harvey, Wm.      439
Heisenberg, W.      215
Henry VIII      341
hermite      17
Herodotus      197Ч204
Hertz, H.      441
Hilbert, D.      142 146 238
Historical criticism, in art      359Ч362
Historical method      Chap. XVII
Hobbes, T.      16
Hume, D.      279Ч280 335 446
Huntington, E.V.      433
Huxley, T.H.      197 381
Hypotheses, and counting      291Ч293
Hypotheses, and experimental methods      252 257
Hypotheses, and fictions      367Ч375
Hypotheses, and historical method      325Ч351 354
Hypotheses, and induction      279Ч284
Hypotheses, and mathematics      139
Hypotheses, and scientific method      392Ч394 Chap.
Hypotheses, and theory of probability      167Ч168
Hypotheses, and universal propositions      43
Hypotheses, formal conditions for      207Ч215
Hypotheses, general and special      206
Hypothetical propositions      44
Hypothetical propositions, contradictory of      69
Hypothetical propositions, contrapositives of      64
Hypothetical propositions, their equivalent alternative and disjunctive propositions      64Ч65
Hypothetical syllogism      96Ч100 103Ч104
Identity, and metaphors      369
Identity, principle of      123 181 183
Identity, structural      137
Immediate inference      73
Implication, and inference      7
Implication, and inference, and meaning      9
Implication, and inference, as determination      12
Implication, and inference, as factual and as logical      48
Implication, and inference, its nature      8Ч13 175
Implication, and inference, paradox of      127 173Ч176
Implication, and inference, strict or tautologous      127
Impressionism, in criticism      357Ч359
Inclusion of classes      113 123
Incomplete expressions, and propositions      30
Inconsistent Triad      91Ч94 144
Independence, between propositions      53 55 56Ч57 143Ч147
Independence, of events and their probability      160
Indifference, principle of      165
Induction      14 249
Induction, and deduction      276Ч279
Induction, and probability      Chap. XIV
Induction, and sampling      279Ч286
Induction, intuitive      273Ч275
Induction, mathematical      147Ч148
Induction, perfect      275Ч276
Inference, and implication      7
Inference, and induction and deduction      276Ч279
Inference, by added determinants      73
Inference, by complex conception      74
Inference, by converse relation      63
Inference, by limitation      58 84
Inference, immediate      73
Inference, mediate      73
Inference, paradox of      173Ч176
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