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Winograd T. Understanding computers and cognition
Winograd T.  Understanding computers and cognition







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: Understanding computers and cognition

: Winograd T.

:

This is an excellent text which describes an approach to using computers to perform an enabling role within corporate enterprises by using their ability to allow clearer understanding between participants in the workplace. The other aspect of this book looks at current methods of creating AI systems and their fundamental weaknesses. Having read this as part of my MSc. in Information Technology I have re-read it several times and I would recommend it to all those involved in complex system design, implementation and support. In addition a book such as Checklands Soft Systems Methodolgy will give a good introduction to how the systems described in Understanding Computers and Cognition can be designed to meet the demands of "real world" environments


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ed2k: ed2k stats

: 1987

: 207

: 10.12.2005

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AAAI      See American Association for Artificial Intelligence)
Abelson, Robert      23n 113n 115
Abstract machine      88
Accidental representation      9192
Accounting, as profession oriented systematic domain      176
Acquisition      see Knowledge acquisition
act      see Linguistic act Speech
action      7172
Action and autopoiesis      47
Action and existence      69
Action and language      see Language
Action and thrownness      34 71
Action as interpretation      144
Action in problem solving      23
Action, breakdown of      170171
Action, conversation for      see Conversation for action
Address, as example of distinction      171
Agreement, as basis for meaning      6264
AI      see Artificial intelligence
Aitiational scheme      57
Alexander, Christopher      163
Alexander, Tom      126
Algorithm      87 90
Allende, Salvador      xi
Alternatives      146149
Alternatives, choice among      2023 144150 153
Alternatives, generation of      149 (see also Decision making)
Alvey committee      134
American Association for Artificial Intelligence      125 128n
Amnesty International      xiv
Analogy      68 116117
Analytic philosophy      see Philosophy
and intelligence      see Artificial intelligence
Anticipation      see Breakdown
Apel, Karl      9
Apple      see Macintosh
Appropriateness of computer response      121
Appropriateness of utterance      5758
Arch, as example of concept      101
Argument, structure of      6768
Aristotle      30 109
artificial intelligence      34 93139
Artificial intelligence and background      113
Artificial intelligence and cognition      8 25 75 130
Artificial intelligence and common sense      98
Artificial intelligence and formal logic      85
Artificial intelligence and representation      8486 96n 98 Fifth Heuristic Learning Thinking Understanding)
Artificial intelligence as paradigm      109
Artificial intelligence as problem solving      2223 9597
Artificial intelligence, applications      125131
Artificial intelligence, claims for      34 152
Artificial intelligence, critiques of      16
Artificial intelligence, current developments      125139
Artificial intelligence, programming for      8789
Assembly language      91
Assertive, speech act      58 66
Austin, J.L.      xii 10 56 58 70
Automation      127
Autonomous agent      105
Autonomy, of device      94
Autopoiesis      40 4446
Autopoiesis and consensual domain      49
Autopoietic system      see Autopoiesis
awareness      29
Baby, as example of cognitive system      52
Bachelor, as example of word definition      112
Background      5458 7476 111114 145149 155157
Background and frames      119
Background and interpretation      113 171172
Background and listening      5458
Background and meaning      5458 60 112
Background in expert system      131133
Background in programming      155 178 Preunderstanding Tradition)
Background of commitment      63
Background, articulation of      6768 75 148149
Bamberger, Jean      xiii
Barnett, Octo      133
Barwise, Jon      69n 114n
Beer, Stafford      xii 166n
Behavior, learned vs. instinctive      45
Behavior, rational      2023
Behaviorism      48
Being      29 3033 Ontology)
Being-in-the-world      31 7073 97
Belief, attributed to computer      106
Belief, explicit formalization of      32
Bell, Chauncey      xiii
Beta structure      115
Betti, Emilio      28n
Bias, of computer      156
Biological Computer Laboratory      38n
biology      3853 73
Blindness      97100
Blindness and recurrence      151
Blindness in decision support system      153 157
Blindness in human understanding      123
Blindness in representation      98 124
Blindness of programs      9798 101 121 123 133
Blindness of rationalistic tradition      17 71
Blindness to commitment      162
Blindness, awareness of      167
Blindness, created by design      166167
Blindness, inevitability of      167
Blocks world      101 109110
Bobrow, Daniel      xiii 23 115 117n 118n
Boguslaw, Robert      21 153154
Bookkeeping, as systematic domain      170171 175 177
BORIS      121
Bounded rationality      22 145146
Breakdown      3637 6669 7779 165173
Breakdown and decision making      147
Breakdown and design      7779 165166
Breakdown and language      60 6869 78
Breakdown and readiness-to-hand      3637
Breakdown as interpretation      171172
Breakdown in computer      5 36 75 78 84 9091 165166 173
Breakdown in conversation      60 66 168169
Breakdown in organization      150 157
Breakdown, anticipation of      78 150 154 158 165 168 171172
Breakdown, recurrence of      6869 150 158
Browsing      166167
Buchanan, Bruce      131
Cadwallader-Cohen, J.B.      102n
Car buying, as example of decision      148149
Cashman, Paul      161
Center for the Study of Language and Information      xiv
Chaostron      102n
Checkers      100
Checklist, for definition      112
Cherubini, Ralph      xiv
Chile      xi xiv 166n
Choice      See Alternative
Chomsky, Noam      39
Cicourel, Aaron      xiii 29n
Circularity      see Hermeneutic circle Strange
Classification, objective      69
clock      94
Closure      see Nervous system
Clothing size, as example of domain      171172
CNSRS      134
coaching      160 179
Cognition      25 3853 7072
Cognition and representation      73 99
Cognition in rationalistic tradition      16 33 71
Cognitive domain      4648 51 52 73
Cognitive modelling      25 130131
Cognitive psychology      2425 114
Cognitive science      2326 74
Cognitive Science Society      24
Cognitive Science, journal      23
Cognitive system      25 46
Cognitive Systems, Inc.      128
Collins, Allen      23n
Color, perception of      4143
Combinatorial concept formation      see Concept formation
Commissive, type of speech act      59 63 157
Commitment      7677 150160
Commitment and humanness      76 106
Commitment and temporality      160 (see also Speech act)
Commitment as basis for language      5860 7677 179
Commitment in conversation      66 157
Commitment in organization      150152 158
Commitment, concealment of      156
Commitment, forgetfulness of      76 156
Common sense, difficulty of programming      98
Common sense, shaping by technical language      7 178
Communication      7677 176
Communicative competence      162
Competence      39
Compiler      88 90
Completion      see Conversation
complexity      9495
Component of autopoietic unity      44
Component of machine      87
Computer      37 83106
Computer and breakdown      see Breakdown
Computer and commitment      106 155
Computer and decision-making      2022
Computer and representation      8392
Computer and social context      84 135137
Computer as abstract machine      88
Computer as evolving structure      102
Computer as logic device      8788
Computer as medium of communication      76 155 159
Computer as physical machine      87
Computer as plastic structure-determined system      94 102
Computer as tool      7172 77 (See
Computer language      see Programming language
Computer program      8390
Computer program and bias      156157
Computer program and blindness      97100
Computer program and representation      8486 96n
Computer program and structural change      94
Computer program and task domain      97
Computer program as theory of behavior      26
Computer program for systematic domain      174177
Computer program, evolution of      102
Computer, design of      xi-xiii 53 75 7779 163179
Computer, interaction with      136138 165
Computer, unanticipated effects of      154
Computer, understanding by      see Understanding) (see also Artificial intelligence Robot)
Computerization      75 173 154155
Concealment      see Tradition
Concept formation      101102
Concernful activity      33 37 69 73
Condition of satisfaction      60 6566 171172
Connectionist approach      130
Consciousness      52
Consensual domain      4852 76
Content word      17
Context and frames      116
Context and interpretation      28
Context and literal meaning      19
Context and textual meaning      30
Context in decision making      146
Context in expert system      131133
Context in semantics      19 55 113
Context of answer      155
Context of speech act      56
Context of systematic domain      177
Context, analysis in SHRDLU      110
Conversation      6468
Conversation as dance      159
Conversation for action      64 151 159161
Conversation for possibilities      151
Conversation, completion of      66 160
Conversation, computer tools for      157162
Conversation, recurrent      168 172173
Conversational principle      57
Cooperative domain      50
Coordination in organization      143 158
Coordination system      157162 179
Coordination system for programming      161
Coordination system to reduce work rigidity      169
Correspondence theory of meaning      1720
Counteroffer      65
Coupling      see Structural coupling
Cybernetics      38n 51 130
Cybersyn      166
Dantzig, George      xiv
Dasein      31
Data bank      155
Data base      89 129
Davidson, Donald      18n
Davis, Randall      123n
Decision maker      144
Decision making      2023 144150
Decision making and pre-orientation      147
Decision making and rationality      145
Decision making vs. resolution      147150 151 Problem
Decision support system      152157 166
Decision, programmed vs. nonpro-grammed      153
Declaration, type of speech act      59
Decomposition      87
Decontextualization      28
Default, in frame      115 117
Deliberation, as conversation      149
DENDRAL      131
Dennett, Dan      106
Denotation      17
Descartes, Rene      30
description      5052
Design      47 7779 163179
Design and anticipation      see Breakdown
Design and structural coupling      53 178
Design as generation of new possibilities      170
Design as problem-solving      77
Design of computer systems      see Computer
Design of conversation structures      158 169170
Design of domain      165
Design of formal representation      96 97
Design, ontological      163 177179
Designer, power of      154
Desire, attributed to computer      106
Detached observation and reflection      34 71
Dewey, John      9 63n
Diagnosis, by computer      131133
Directive, type of speech act      58 157
Disintegration, of autopoietic system      45
Display hack      9192
Dissolving, of problem      148
Distinction by observer      5051 73
Distinction in language      69 174
DOCTOR      120121
Doing, as interpretation      143144
Domain      4653 170179
Domain of action      53 166
Domain of anticipation      172
Domain of breakdown      166 170171 173
Domain of distinctions      73
Domain of explanation      5253
Domain of perturbations      43 53 75
Domain of recurrence      64
Domain of structure-determined behavior      47 73 Consensual Cooperative Systematic
Domain, created by design      179
Domain, created by language      174
Domain, design of      165
Domain, linguistic      51
Donnelly, R.R.      102n
Dress shop, as example of design      167174
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