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Taylor P. Ч Text-to-Speech Synthesis
Taylor P. Ч Text-to-Speech Synthesis

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Ќазвание: Text-to-Speech Synthesis

јвтор: Taylor P.


Text-to-Speech Synthesis provides a complete, end-to-end account of the process of generating speech by computer. Giving an in-depth explanation of all aspects of current speech synthesis technology, it assumes no specialized prior knowledge. Introductory chapters on linguistics, phonetics, signal processing and speech signals lay the foundation, with subsequent material explaining how this knowledge is put to use in building practical systems that generate speech. Including coverage of the very latest techniques such as unit selection, hidden Markov model synthesis, and statistical text analysis, explanations of the more traditional techniques such as format synthesis and synthesis by rule are also provided. Weaving together the various strands of this multidisciplinary field, the book is designed for graduate students in electrical engineering, computer science, and linguistics. It is also an ideal reference for practitioners in the fields of human communication interaction and telephony.

язык: en

–убрика: Computer science/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 2009

 оличество страниц: 597

ƒобавлена в каталог: 31.10.2010

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ѕредметный указатель
abbreviations, decoding      98
Abjab writing system      34Ч35
Acoustic models of speech production      309Ч340 see "Sound physics "Vowel-tube
Acoustic models of speech production, about the acoustic models      309 339Ч340
Acoustic models of speech production, assumptions discussion      336Ч340
Acoustic models of speech production, components of the model      309Ч311
Acoustic models of speech production, models with vocal-tract losses      335Ч336
Acoustic models of speech production, nasal cavity modelling      333Ч335
Acoustic models of speech production, oral cavity sound source positions      335
Acoustic models of speech production, radiation models      330
Acoustic models of speech production, source and radiation effects      336
Acoustic representations      156Ч159
Acoustic representations, spectogram      157Ч159
Acoustic representations, spectral analysis/frequency domain analysis      156
Acoustic representations, spectral envelope      156Ч157
Acoustic theory      see "Sound physics "Vowel-tube
Acoustic waves      316Ч318
Acoustic-space formulation (ASF)      485 493Ч497
Acronyms, decoding      99
Adapting systems if TTS      50
Addition paradigm      71
Advanced Telecommunications Research (ATR)      512Ч514
Affective communication      8Ч9
Affective prosody      17 123Ч124
Affricates      153 201
Air-flow measurement (mouth air flow)      155
Algorithms and features      79Ч82 see
Algorithms and features, hand written algorithms      80
All-pole modelling, assumptions      337Ч338
Allophones      162
Allophonic variation      166Ч167
Alphabetic writing      34
Alternative spellings, decoding      98
Alveolar      154
AM model      see "Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model"
Ambiguity issues      22
Ambiguity issues, different words, same form      54
Ambiguity issues, homograph ambiguity      22
Analogue signals      262Ч278 see
Analogue signals, aperiodic signals      262
Analogue signals, complex exponential sinusoid      266Ч269
Analogue signals, complex numbers      268
Analogue signals, conjugate symmetric complex amplitudes      268Ч269
Analogue signals, Euler's formula      266Ч268
Analogue signals, Fourier series/synthesis/analysis      265Ч266 269Ч670
Analogue signals, frequency      264Ч265
Analogue signals, frequency domain      270Ч275
Analogue signals, frequency range      274
Analogue signals, fundamental frequency (F0)      148 265
Analogue signals, harmonic frequency      265
Analogue signals, periodic signals      262Ч269 305Ч307
Analogue signals, phase shift      264
Analogue signals, quasi-periodic signals      262
Analogue signals, sinusoid signals      263Ч269
Analogue signals, time domain      270
Analogue signals, waveforms      262
APL (Anderson, Pierrehumbert and Liberman) synthesis scheme      246
Applications, future of      538
Approximates      154 201
Arbitraryness      15
Architectures for TTS      71Ч75
Architectures for TTS, addition paradigm      71
Architectures for TTS, associative arrays (maps)      72
Architectures for TTS, atomic values      72Ч73
Architectures for TTS, autosegmental phonology of data structures      73
Architectures for TTS, Delta formulation/structure      74
Architectures for TTS, dictionaries      72
Architectures for TTS, finite partial functions      72
Architectures for TTS, heterogeneous relation graph (HRG) formalism      72Ч75
Architectures for TTS, list/tree/ladder relations      73
Architectures for TTS, lookup tables      72
Architectures for TTS, overwrite paradigm      71
Architectures for TTS, utterance structure      71
Articulatory gestures      406
Articulatory phonetics      see "Speech production/articulatory phonetics"
Articulatory phonology      183 406
Articulatory physiology      406
Articulatory synthesis      405Ч407
ASCII encoding      70
Aspiration      168
Assimilation effect      167
Associative arrays (maps)      72
Assumed intent for prosody      49Ч50
atomic values      72Ч73
Audio-visual speech synthesis      527Ч529
Audio-visual speech synthesis about audiovisual synthesis      406Ч407 527Ч528
Audio-visual speech synthesis and speech control      528Ч529
Audio-visual speech synthesis, texture mapping      528
Audio-visual speech synthesis, visemes      528
Auditory scales      351Ч352
Augmentative prosody      18 125Ч126
Autocorrelation function, for pitch detection      381
Autocorrelation source separation method      360Ч361
Automatic labelling      521
Autosegmental phonology      73 183
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model      227 237Ч239
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model and the ToBI scheme      247 248
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, analysis with      248
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, APL synthesis scheme      246
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, data-driven synthesis      247Ч248
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, deterministic synthesis      246Ч247
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, prediction of labels from text      246
Autosegmental-metrical (AM) intonation model, synthesis with      245Ч248
Auxiliary generation for prosody      49Ч50
Bag-of-features approach      84
Baum Ч Welch algorithm      449
Bayes' rule      86Ч87 545
Beam pruning      509
Bilabial constriction      154
Blizzard Challenge testing      526
Boundary accents/tones      121 236 238
Braille      27
Break index concept      115
British English MRPA phoneme inventory      554
British intonation school      227 236Ч237
Campbell timing model      258
Canned speech      43Ч44
Cepstra, linear-prediction cepstra      369
Cepstra, mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC)      370
Cepstral coefficients, synthesis from      429Ч431
Cepstrum speech analysis      353Ч357
Cepstrum speech analysis as deconvolution      355Ч356
Cepstrum speech analysis for pitch detection      379
Cepstrum speech analysis, definition      353
Cepstrum speech analysis, discussion      356Ч357
Cepstrum speech analysis, the magnitude spectrum as a signal      353Ч355
Chain rule      546
Channel/medium (means of conversion)      13
Character, character-to-phoneme conversion      55
Character, definition      54
Character, encoding schemes      69Ч70
CHATR system      513
Cholskey decomposition technique      359
Chomskian field      534
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis      399Ч405
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis about LP synthesis      399
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, a complete synthesiser      403Ч404
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, formant synthesis comparison      399Ч400
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, impulse/noise source model      400Ч401
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, LP diphone-concatenative synthesis      401Ч403
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, source modelling      378
Classical linear-prediction (LP) synthesis, source problems      404Ч405
Classification      see "Text-classification algorithms"
Classifiers, F0 models      228
Clitics      60Ч61
Closed-phase analysis      374Ч377
Closed-phase analysis, instants of glottal closure points      374
Closed-phase analysis, pre-emphasis      375
Cluster impurity      88
Coarticulation      168
Cocke Ч Younger Ч Kasami (CYK) algorithm      104
Collocation rule      84
Colouring effect      167
Common-form model of TTS      5Ч6 38
communication processes      18Ч23
Communication processes, ambiguity issues      22
Communication processes, common ground issues      20
Communication processes, dialogue turns      18
Communication processes, effectiveness factor      19Ч20
Communication processes, efficiency factor      19Ч20
Communication processes, encoding/decoding      18Ч19 21Ч22
Communication processes, Grice's maxims      20
Communication processes, homograph ambiguity      22
Communication processes, information-theoretic approach      23
Communication processes, message generation      18Ч21
Communication processes, messages      18
Communication processes, semiotics      23
Communication processes, speech, redundancy in      21
Communication processes, text decoding/analysis      22
Communication processes, understanding      19 22Ч23
Communication, types of      8Ч13 see
Communication, types of, about communication      8 23Ч25
Communication, types of, affective communication      8Ч9
Communication, types of, iconic communication      9Ч10
Communication, types of, interpreted communication      8
Communication, types of, meaning/form/signal      12Ч13
Communication, types of, signals      13
Communication, types of, symbolic communication      10Ч12
Comparison tests      524
Competitive evaluations      526
complex numbers      268
Component/unit testing      525Ч526
Compound prosodic domains theory      114
Compound-noun phrases      116Ч117
Comprehension tests      523
Compression, lossless and lossy      215
Computational phonology      184
Concatenative synthesis      401Ч403
Concatenative synthesis, issues      431Ч432
Concatenative synthesis, macro-concatenation      431 497
Concatenative synthesis, micro-concatenation      431
Concatenative synthesis, optimal coupling      432
Concatenative synthesis, phase mismatch issues      431Ч432
Concept-to-speech systems      42Ч43
Concept-to-speech systems, future of      537
Conditional probability      545
Conjugate symmetric complex amplitudes      268Ч269
Consonants      153Ч155
Consonants, affricates      153
Consonants, alveolar      154
Consonants, approximants      154
Consonants, bilabial      154
Consonants, difficult consonants      199Ч200
Consonants, fricatives      153
Consonants, glides      154Ч155
Consonants, IPA charts      555
Consonants, labiodental      153
Consonants, nasal stops      153
Consonants, obstruent      154
Consonants, oral stops      153
Context-free grammars (CFGs)      102Ч104
Context-orientated-clustering      495
Context-sensitive modelling      451Ч454
Context-sensitive rewrite rule      83Ч84
Context-sensitive rules      182
Context-sensitive synthesis models      461Ч463
Continuants      150
Contractions      60
Convolution sum      292
Correlation coefficient      544
Covariance matrix      439
Covariance method      358Ч360
Coverage (in unit-selection synthesis)      510
Cumulative density functions      549Ч610
Curse of dimensionality      81 534
Data sparsity problem      81 193
Data-driven intonation models      250Ч254
Data-driven intonation models about data-driven models      250Ч251
Data-driven intonation models, dynamic-system models      252Ч253
Data-driven intonation models, functional models      254
Data-driven intonation models, HMM models      253Ч254
Data-driven intonation models, SFC model      254
Data-driven intonation models, unit-selection synthesis      251Ч252
Data-driven synthesis      247Ч248 435 470Ч471 see
databases      517Ч522
Databases and labelling      519Ч521
Databases, automatic labelling      521
Databases, avoiding explicit labels      521Ч522
Databases, hand labelling      519Ч521
Databases, prosody databases      518Ч519
Databases, text materials      518
Databases, unit-selection databases      517Ч518
Decision lists      85Ч86
Decision trees      87Ч88 221 452Ч455
Decision trees, clustering      494Ч496
Decoding/encoding messages      18Ч19 21Ч22 see
Decoding/encoding messages, text decoding/analysis      22
Delta formulation/structure      72
Delta/velocity coefficients      438Ч439
Dental constriction      154
Dependency phonology      183
Deterministic acoustic models, synthesis with      248Ч250
Deterministic acoustic models, synthesis with, Fujisaki superimpositional models      249
Deterministic acoustic models, synthesis with, Tilt model      249Ч250
Deterministic phrasing prediction      130Ч131
Deterministic phrasing prediction, deterministic content function (DCF)      130
Deterministic phrasing prediction, deterministic content function punctuation (DCFP)      131
Deterministic phrasing prediction, deterministic punctuation (DP)      130
Deterministic phrasing prediction, verb-balancing rule      131
Deterministic synthesis models      246Ч247
Dialogue turns      18
Dictionaries      72
Digital filters      288Ч294 308
Digital filters about digital filters      288Ч289
Digital filters and the z-transform      293Ч294
Digital filters, analysis/design      294Ч305
Digital filters, analysis/design, about digital filter design      304Ч305
Digital filters, analysis/design, and the z-domain transfer function      297Ч298
Digital filters, analysis/design, anti-resonances      303
Digital filters, analysis/design, characteristics      298Ч304
Digital filters, analysis/design, complex-conjugate pairs of poles      300Ч302
Digital filters, analysis/design, polynomial analysis (poles and zeros)      294Ч297
Digital filters, analysis/design, practical properties      304Ч306
Digital filters, analysis/design, resonance/resonators      300
Digital filters, analysis/design, skirts of poles      302
Digital filters, convolution sum      292 293Ч294
Digital filters, difference equations      289
Digital filters, ER filter      289
Digital filters, FIR filter      289
Digital filters, impulse response      289Ч291
Digital filters, linear time-invariant (LTI) filter      288
Digital filters, linearity principle      289
Digital filters, recursive filters      289
Digital filters, scaling      288Ч289
Digital filters, superposition      289
Digital filters, third-order filters      289
Digital filters, transfer function      293Ч294
digital signals      278Ч284 307
Digital signals and the frequency domain      283Ч284
Digital signals, digital representations      280
Digital signals, digital waveforms      279
Digital signals, discrete Fourier transform (DFT)      281Ч282
Digital signals, discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)      280Ч281
Digital signals, Laplace transform      283
Digital signals, Nyquist frequency      279
Digital signals, sample rate/frequency      279
Digital signals, z-transform      282Ч283
Diphone inventories      414
Diphone unit-selection system      505
Diphone-concatenative synthesis      401Ч403
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