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Callaghan P. Ч Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
Callaghan P. Ч Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

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Ќазвание: Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

јвтор: Callaghan P.


Although nuclear magnetic resonance is perhaps best known for its spectacular utility in medical tomography, its potential applicability to fields such as biology, materials science, and chemical physics is being increasingly recognized as laboratory NMR spectrometers are adapted to enable small scale imaging. This excellent introduction to the subject explores principles and common themes underlying two key variants of NMR microscopy, and provides many examples of their use. Methods discussed are not only important to fundamental biological and physical research, but have applications to a wide variety of industries, including those concerned with petrochemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food processing, and natural product processing. The wide range of scientists interested in NMR microscopy will want to own a copy of this book.

язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1991

 оличество страниц: 492

ƒобавлена в каталог: 28.06.2005

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
ѕредметный указатель
Absorption imaging      18Ч20
Acceleration      354
Acetabularia      242
Active shielding      471Ч472
Adhesives      257
Aerosol OT      349
Aliasing      11
Anderson Ч Weiss theory      63 415
Angiography      423 433
Angular momentum, quantization      21
Angular momentum, vector      35
Animal tissue, imaging      244Ч254
Animal tissue, spectrum of proton relaxation times      233Ч234
Anisotropic diffusion      344Ч350
Apodization filter      185Ч189
Apparent diffusion coefficient      372Ч373
Artefacts      5 209
Artefacts, chemical shift      278Ч280
Artefacts, diffusion      451 456
Artefacts, gradient induced phase shifts      452Ч456
Artefacts, phase      453
Artefacts, zero-filling      453Ч454
Autocorrelation function      334 376
Average propagator      332
Average propagator for diffusion and flow      333
Average propagator for restricted diffusion in the long timescale limit      376Ч380
Back-projection      20
Bandwidth      11
Bandwidth, of r.f. pulse      57
Bandwidth, optimal      191Ч192
Belosov Ч Zhabotinsky reaction      276
Best      155
Binomial sequence      292 294
Bipolar gradient      355 426 436
Bloch decay      48 306
Bloch equations      39
Bloch vector      53
Bolus tagging      423
Broadening regimes      185
Brownian motion      157Ч162 331Ч334
Brownstein Ч Tarr model      408Ч413
Bryophyllwn tubiflore      237
Capillary flow      443Ч446
Carbon imaging      301Ч306
Cardiac cycle      434
Cardiac gating      247
Carr Ч Purcell echo train      65
Carr Ч Purcell Ч Meiboom Ч Gill (CPMG) sequence      75Ч76
Cartesian and polar coordinates      19 122
CE-FAST      151Ч152 422
Cell imaging      251Ч254
Central limits theorem      159
Ceramics      257
Chapman Ч Kolmogoroff equations      406
Chemical exchange magnetic resonance imaging      296
Chemical selection      98 141Ч143 283Ч287
Chemical shift      49Ч50
Chemical Shift Imaging      280Ч282
Chemical shift, artefacts      278Ч280
Chemical shift, contrast and higher-dimensional strategy      280Ч281
Chemical shift, image displacement      278
Chemical shift, isotropic      50
Chemical shift, selective multislice images      141
Chemical shift, tensor      50
Chemical waves      276
Chemically selective excitation      see УChemical selectionФ
Chess      141 283 287
Chromatographic and electrophoretic separation      458
Coherence      32Ч33
Coherence peaks      392 398
Coherence time for turbulence      363Ч367 451
Coherence transfer      79Ч85 288 301Ч304
Coherent noise cancellation      67
Coherent superposition      13
Collimated sources      17
Conditional probability      330Ч332 406 438
Conditional probability flux      331
Conjugate space      2Ч4 18
Connection matrix      388Ч389
Continuity theorem      331
contrast      22 25 267Ч296
Contrast, ${T}_{1\rho}$      277
Contrast, ${T}_{1}$ and ${T}_{2}$      270Ч277
Contrast, ${T}_{1}$ using snapshot FLASH      271
Contrast, agents      277Ч278
Contrast, chemical shift      278Ч287
Contrast, factor      97
Convolution      8Ч9 45 135 386
Convolution, broadening      14 74
Convolution, due to apodization filter      186
Convolution, integral      8 20
Convolution, theorem      8
Correlation function      415 see УSelf-correlation
Correlation function, dipolar      60
Correlation function, fluctuating field      415
Correlation function, lattice      394
Correlation function, Van Hove      330
Correlation function, velocity      335Ч337
correlation length      363 394 414
Correlation regularity      393
Correlation time      335 414 416
Correlation time, exchange      231
Correlation time, for translation      335
Correlation time, rotational      61 230
Couette flow      362
CPMAS      317
CRAMPS      310 313
Crusher pulses      137
Cryofluid freezing      277
Current control      463
Curvilinear diffusion      401Ч403
Cyclops      67Ч68 430
Dante      120Ч121 308 426 438
Demagnetizing field      209
Density matrix      31
Deuterium imaging      299 318
diamagnetic susceptibility      208Ч224
Diffraction      3Ч4
Diffraction, analogy      337Ч341 386Ч399
Diffraction, effect      398
Diffraction, intensity      3
Diffraction, pattern      13
Diffraction, phase problem      3
Diffraction, scattering centres      4
Diffusion      see also УSelf-diffusionФ УMutual УPseudo-diffusionФ
Diffusion, artefact      451
Diffusion, bounded      337
Diffusion, dephasing and echo attenuation effects      201 204Ч206 217Ч224
Diffusion, in polymer gels      401
Diffusion, restricted      328 346 371Ч401 449
Diffusion, resulting point spread function      204
Diffusion, spectrum      335 344 357
Diffusion, tensor      see УDiffusion spectrumФ
Diffusive broadening      204
Diffusive broadening, influence according to k-space direction      206
Diffusive contrast      434 438Ч458
Diffusive envelope      392
Diffusive linewidth      see УDiffusive broadeningФ
Diffusive resolution limit      205
Digger      117 287
Diode duplexor      461
Dipolar interactions      46Ч49 58Ч64 306
Dipolar line-narrowing      85Ч91
Dipolar linewidth      86
Dirac delta function      4
dispersion      43 73 129
Dispersion, image      133
Dispersion, spectrum      43 73 129
Distortion      124 209Ч217 224Ч225
Double quantum coherence      54Ч57 290 318
Driven Equilibrium Fourier Transform method      79
Droplet size distribution      350 382
Dynamic displacement      332 339Ч341
Dynamic displacement profile      440Ч441 449 451
Dynamic equilibrium      65 77Ч79
Dynamic NMR microscopy      438Ч457
Dynamic NMR microscopy, contrast      440
Dynamic NMR microscopy, digital computation      441
Dynamic NMR microscopy, resolution      438
Dynamic nuclear polarization      308
Dynamic viscosity      443
e.m.f. induced in the receiver coil      174Ч177
echo      see also УGradient echoФ УSolid УSpin УStimulated
Echo attenuation      157Ч169 328
Echo attenuation, 'pathological'      387
Echo attenuation, Carr Ч Purcell train      161
Echo attenuation, diffusion and flow      164
Echo attenuation, steady gradient      160
Echo planar imaging      152Ч157 435
Echo planar imaging, comparison with FLASH      157
Echo planar imaging, diffusive effects      206Ч208
Echo planar imaging, echo summation      143 147 194Ч197
Echo planar imaging, optimum conditions      208
Echo planar imaging, optimum sensitivity      147
Echo planar imaging, raster      153
Echo planar imaging, unequal sampling intervals      156
Echo planar imaging, with bipolar encoding gradient      436
Echo summation      143 147 194Ч197
Echo summation, diffusive effects      206Ч208
Echo summation, optimum conditions      208
Echo summation, optimum sensitivity      147
Echo, even and odd      366
Echo, negative time      128
Echo, spin and gradient      105 113 116
Eddy currents      470Ч471
Eddy gradient compensation and suppression      471
Effective field      37 98
Effective gradient      167Ч168 354 428 433
Elastomer, imaging      263Ч267
Elastomer, spin echo and gradient echo imaging      267
Elastomer, structural morphology      267
Electric quadrupole interactions      25
Electron spin resonance      22
Embryogenesis      251
Emission imaging      17 21
energy levels      30
Ensemble averaging      25 31
Epoxy resin composites      257
Ernst angle      66
Erythrocyte membrane permeability      233
Evolution, during selective excitation      102Ч113
Evolution, of a nuclear spin quantum state      28
Evolution, of polarization states      72 81Ч85 301Ч306
Evolution, of the density matrix      31
Evolution, operator      28
Evolution, time      97
Evolution, under effective gradient      353Ч357
Evolution, with average Hamiltonian      87Ч90
Exchange      221 232 296 298 408
Exponential filter      185Ч186
Extreme narrowing      61
Fade      152 422
FAST      151 422
Fast motion limit      64
Fast-exchange averaging      221
FI and PR      18Ч20 122Ч128
FI and PR, comparison of methods      224
Fick's law      331
FID      see УFree Induction DecayФ
Field inhomogeneity      45
Filter, bandpass      11
Filter, optimal      186
Filtered back projection      see УProjection reconstructionФ УFI
Filtered profile      127
Filtered transform      20 129
FISP      152
Flash      148Ч149 435
FLASH, advantages      149
FLASH, relaxation contrast      149
FLASH, snapshot      149
FLASH, spoiled      149
FLEET      152
Flow measurement      163Ч169 341Ч342 421Ч449
Flow measurement, direct visualization of motion      426
Flow measurement, effect of gradient non-uniformity      455
Flow measurement, effect of self-diffusion      433
Flow measurement, nulling the stationary signal component      429
Flow measurement, periodic motion      434
Flow measurement, phase shift      420 426Ч424
Flow measurement, range of velocities      421
Flow measurement, replenishment effects      446
Flow measurement, slice selection gradient effects      421
Flow measurement, steady state      420 422
Flow measurement, time of night      420 423Ч426
Flow measurement, using CPMG train      435
Flow measurement, using DANTE sequence      426
Flow measurement, using stimulated echo      423
Flow, compensation using even echoes      449
Flow, random      362Ч367
Flow, suppression of phase shifts      435
Flow, through porous media      363
Flow, visualization      362
Fluorine imaging      296
Forced rayleigh scattering      436
Form factor      392
Fourier filtration      18 20
Fourier imaging      122Ч124
Fourier transformation      2Ч8 13 94Ч95
Fourier transformation, antisymmetric      12
Fourier transformation, Cartesian coordinates      95
Fourier transformation, complex transformation      11
Fourier transformation, conjugate transformations      10
Fourier transformation, conjugate variables      2
Fourier transformation, Cooley and Tukey      11
Fourier transformation, discrete      10Ч11
Fourier transformation, in dynamic NMR microscopy      441
Fourier transformation, inverse      8 20 95
Fourier transformation, inverse in polar form      127
Fourier transformation, one-dimensional      19
Fourier transformation, optical microscopy      12Ч15
Fourier transformation, real and imaginary      11Ч12
Fourier transformation, relationship between average propagator and echo amplitude      340
Fractal behaviour      404Ч405
Fractal dimension      405
Free induction decay (FID)      42Ч43
Free Induction Decay (FID), Gaussian      48
Frequency domain      95
Full Ч Width Ч Half Ч Maximum      42
Full Ч Width Ч Half Ч Maximum of dynamic, displacement profile      442
Gadolinium-diethylene-triaminepenta-acetic acid      278
Gaussian, assumption      356
Gaussian, lineshape      48
Gaussian, pulses      100
Geen et al pulse      116
Gradient coil      461Ч463
Gradient coil, double and single screening      470Ч477
Gradient coil, gradient uniformity under screening      475
Gradient coil, saddle, Maxwell pair, quadrupolar, Helmholtz, and planar      470 475
Gradient coil, target field approach      474
Gradient, current      461Ч465
Gradient, echo      105 113Ч125 136Ч138
Gradient, frequency domain treatment      358
Gradient, linearity      463
Gradient, modulated      353Ч362
Gradient, phase cycling      429 431
Gradient, power supplies      463
Gradient, pulse matching      452
Gradient, reversal      113 138
Gradient, rise time      137 470Ч471
Gradient, spectrum      358
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