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Cushman-Roisin B. Ч Introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics
Cushman-Roisin B. Ч Introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics

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Ќазвание: Introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics

јвтор: Cushman-Roisin B.

јннотаци€:

This is the first and only introductory level text available on geophysical fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on physics, not mathematics and simple and complex laboratory demonstrations are featured in most chapters. Special contemporary topics, of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics, including the greenhouse effect, global warming and southern oscillation are covered.


язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1994

 оличество страниц: 332

ƒобавлена в каталог: 07.03.2014

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
Absolute acceleration      18Ч19 27Ч28
Absolute temperature      35 126
Absolute velocity      18
Abyssal circulation      110 122 277
Adiabatic atmosphere      126
Adiabatic change      39Ч40 125Ч127 128
Adiabatic lapse rate      127
Advection      34 118 371 207 211
Advective instability      147
Ageostrophic flow      85 89 208 212 218
Air masses      181 183
Albedo      268 281
Alps      191
Ambient vorticity      56 113 see
Amplitude of a wave      79 294
Amundsen, Roald      121
Anemometer      13
Antarctic circumpolar current      99 119
Anticyclones      10 41 251 252 see
Approximations, barotropic flow      54
Approximations, beta plane      84 273 284Ч285
Approximations, Boussinesq      37Ч40
Approximations, Cartesian coordinates      34
Approximations, f-plane      52 84
Approximations, flat bottom      52 55 63Ч64 79
Approximations, geostrophic flow      50 52 63Ч64 85 207
Approximations, homogeneous fluid      49 54 63 78
Approximations, hydrostaticity      43
Approximations, ideal gas      36
Approximations, incompressibility      36 124
Approximations, inviscid fluid      49 54 78
Approximations, shallow fluid      40Ч42 43 52 70
Arctic Ocean      5 281
Atlantic Ocean      see also "Gulf Stream"
Atlantic Ocean circulation      110 118 119
Atlantic Ocean columnar flow      5
Atlantic Ocean hurricane tracks      3
Atmosphere differences with oceans      10Ч11
Atmosphere of other planets      3
Atmosphere role in heat balance      268Ч271
Atmosphere, scales in      11
Atmospheric boundary layer as a convective layer      73Ч74 163 164Ч166
Atmospheric boundary layer as an Ekman layer      68 74
Atmospheric motions general circulation      271Ч277
Atmospheric motions hurricanes      2Ч3 5Ч6 252 259 262
Atmospheric motions jet stream      106 229 241
Atmospheric motions scales      10 11
Atmospheric motions sea breeze      10 11 13
Atmospheric motions weather patterns      10Ч11 272Ч273
Australia      292 293
Available potential energy      212Ч14 250 259Ч261 see
Ballerina analogy      57
Baltic Sea      28 29
Baroclinic flow definition      182
Baroclinic flow wave      217 218Ч219
Baroclinic instability      118Ч119 200 224 225Ч238 239 250
Barotropic flow circulation      117
Barotropic flow definition      54
Barotropic flow waves      77Ч93 217
Barotropic instability      96Ч107 118Ч119 200 235 236Ч237 250
Bernoulli function      13 179
Beta effect      112 229 244Ч246 250 257Ч258 259 see
Beta parameter      84 285
Beta plane      74 84 111 112 207 214
Bjerknes, V.      76 121
Blackbody radiation      268
Blocking in geostrophic flows      53 241 247
Blocking in stratified fluids      131 132 142
Bottom proxy for beta effect      120
Bottom role in baroclinic instability      237
Bottom slope      52Ч53 70Ч72 87Ч88 90
Bottom topography      see "Topographic variations"
Boundary conditions lateral      79 114Ч115 117
Boundary conditions vertical      55 63 64 68 71 111 143Ч144 214Ч215 231
Boundary layers      63 111 115Ч116 see "Western
Bounds on wave speeds and growth rates      see "Semicircle theorem"
Boussinesq approximation      37Ч40 124 139 152 153
Brunt Ч Vaisala frequency      see "Stratification frequency"
Brunt, D.      125 135
Bullet train      29
Buoyancy force      124 127 see
Burger number      132Ч133 210
Burger, A.P.      132
Cambridge University      61 293
Cannonball      29
Carbon dioxide      278Ч280
Cartesian coordinates as an approximation      37 84 206
Cartesian coordinates on a sphere      27
Centrifugal force      4 25
Centrifugal force in jet meanders      243
Centrifugal force in vortices      251Ч252
Centrifugal force mathematical derivation      18Ч19
Centrifugal force unimportance of      19Ч21
centripetal acceleration      see "Centrifugal force"
Charney, J.G.      205 224 229 234 235 237 239 247 264
Circulation      57 113 173
Climate definition      267
Climate dynamics      267Ч281
Climate relevance to geophysical fluid dynamics      2
Climate study of      12 283
Clouds      11 137 268 269 270
Coastal upwelling      see "Upwelling"
Coherent structures      220
Columbus, Christopher      13 110
Compressibility      36 40 125
Conduction      35 163
Continental shelf waves      91
Continuity equation      35 37 41 43 54Ч55 56 172
Convection cause      5 125
Convection in the atmosphere      11 129 163 164Ч166 267 271 272
Convection in the ocean      109
Convection model      108 162Ч166
Convergence/divergence      41 56Ч57
Convergence/divergence absence in geostrophic flows      52 53
Convergence/divergence due to Ekman layer      67 70 111Ч112
Convergence/divergence in baroclinic waves      219
Convergence/divergence in stratified fluid      130 132Ч133 173Ч174
Convergence/divergence presence in ageostrophic flows      54 131
Coriolis force ill vortices      251Ч252
Coriolis force in geostrophic adjustment      184 240
Coriolis force in prevailing winds      276
Coriolis force in quasi-geostrophic dynamics      204
Coriolis force origin      4 16Ч29
Coriolis force scaling      44Ч45
Coriolis parameter      see also "Reciprocal"
Coriolis parameter beta approximation      84 93 284
Coriolis parameter on a rotating plane      21
Coriolis parameter on a rotating sphere      28
Coriolis parameter sign      28
Coriolis parameter value      84 114
Crest of meander      244Ч245
Crest of wave      106 295
Critical level      97 102 148 159
Critical meander scale      245 246 249
Cross-section of fluid parcel      56 173
Currentmeter      13 76
Curvature of jets      243Ч247
Curvature of the earthї      19Ч20 27Ч28
Cyclogenesis      250
Cyclones      10 41 251Ч252 see
Cyclostrophic balance      253
de Coriolis, G.G.      32
Dead waters      5 6 8 76 137
Deformation radius      see "Radius of deformation"
Density equation      39 43 171 208Ч209
Density variations      see also "Stratification"
Density variations use in equations      37Ч39
Density variations, role in generating motions      5 126 128
Density variations, scale      7 9 41
Density-coordinate system      169Ч172
Dimensionless numbers beta parameter      84
Dimensionless numbers Burger number      132
Dimensionless numbers Ekman number      45 62Ч63
Dimensionless numbers Froude number      130
Dimensionless numbers Rayleigh number      163
Dimensionless numbers Reynolds number      45
Dimensionless numbers Richardson number      157
Dimensionless numbers Rossby number      44 47 78
Dimensionless numbers temporal Rossby numbei      44 78
Dimensionless numbers topographic parameter      88
Direct cell      272 275Ч277
Dispersion relation generalities      298Ч299
Dispersion relation inertia-gravity waves      82
Dispersion relation internal waves      140 144 302
Dispersion relation planetary waves      85Ч86 216Ч217
Dispersion relation shear flow waves      105
Dispersion relation surface gravity waves      301
Dispersion relation topographic waves      89
Dispersive wave      83 90 298
Divergence      see "Convergence/divergence"
Double diffusion      39
Downwelling      see "Upwelling"
Drag force      5Ч6
Drag force in mountain waves      145 146
Drift of vortices      253Ч259
Dynamic pressure      40 45 46 55
Earth gravitational acceleration      10
Earth northeasterlies      110
Earth radius      20 46 84 285
Earth rotation rate      8 10
Earth southeasterlies      110
Easterlies      11
Eddies      see also "Vortices"
Eddies in oceanic circulation      119 265
Eddies in the atmosphere      274Ч276
Eddies laboratory demonstration      14
Eddies oceanic      11
Eddy diffusivity      39
Eddy flux      274Ч276
Eddy viscosity      45 63 72 see
Eigenvalue problem      99 215
Ekman drift      193Ч194 196 199 see
Ekman layer above flat bottom      63Ч66 66Ч67
Ekman layer above irregular bottom      70Ч72
Ekman layer cause      63
Ekman layer depth/thickness      63 65 69 71 73 114
Ekman layer role in baroclinic instability      229
Ekman layer role in ocean circulation      114 115 118
Ekman layer role in upwelling      193 195
Ekman layer turbulent      72Ч73
Ekman layer under surface      68Ч70 110Ч111
Ekman number      45 49 62Ч63 65 205
Ekman pumping      67 70 72 114
Ekman spiral      66 72 75
Ekman transport      66Ч67 69 see
Ekman, V.W.      5 6 68 76
El Nino      2 285 293
El Nino, description of event      290Ч292
Energy budget      187Ч189 212Ч214
energy equation      35 39
Energy minimum      188Ч189 225
English Channel      81Ч82
Enstrophy      259Ч260
Entrainment      167
Equation of state      36 40 126
Equatorial beta plane      285
Equatorial dynamics      42 93Ч94 194Ч195 284Ч292
Equatorial inertial time      285
Equatorial radius of deformation      285
External radius of deformation      see "Radius of deformation"
f-plane      52 84
Ferrell cell      275Ч77
First law      see "Thermodynamics"
Flattening of earth      19Ч20
Fourier law      35
FRAM      5 6
France      32 81Ч82
Free surface      55 78 215
frequency      22 24 82Ч83 85Ч86 89 139 215 295 298 see
Frequency maximum      87 90
Friction velocity      see "Turbulent friction velocity"
Frictional force      33 34 38 44Ч45 63
Fronts      10 186 197Ч200 240Ч242
Froude number      129Ч131 147 166 243
Full upwelling      197Ч198
Ganett Ч Munk spectrum      147 150
Georges Bank      242
Geostrophic adjustment      183Ч189 199 241Ч242 292
Geostrophic balance (or equilibrium)      49Ч50 66 85 181Ч182 185 186 189 198 204Ч205 207 225 242 251 253
Geostrophic contours      53
Geostrophic flow      50Ч51 52Ч53 82 83 112 183
Geostrophic turbulence      220 224 245 259Ч261
Gibraltar      138 190
Gill, A.E.      34 194 237 290 291 293
Global warming      279Ч281
Governing equations      43
Gradient-wind balance      251
Gravitational force      34 see
Gravitational force as restoring force      136
Gravitational force importance in geophysical fluid dynamics      5 9
Gravitational force in Boussinesq approximation      40
Gravitational force in stratified fluids      124 127
Gravitational force of moon and sun      11 109
Gravitational force relation to centrifugal force      19Ч21 25
Gravity waves      80 83 188 301
Great Britain      82 135 168 293
Great Red Spot      2 6 7 13 99 223 261
Greenhouse effect      270Ч271 278Ч281
Greenhouse gases      2 278 279
Group velocity definition      300Ч301
Group velocity of gravity waves      301
Group velocity of internal waves      142 145
Group velocity of planetary waves      87
Growth rate      99 102 103 159 232
Gulf of Mexico      90
Gulf Stream as a subject in geophysical fluid dynamics      2 122 224 239
Gulf Stream meanders      244
Gulf Stream rings      252
Gulf Stream role in oceanic circulation      118 119 234
Gulf Stream scales      46 134 190
Gulf Stream variability      12 84 99 223
Hadley cell      272 273 275Ч276
Hadley, G.      272
Hawaii      278Ч279
Heat budget      234 268Ч271
heat capacity      35 36
Heat diffusivity      39 163
Heat flux as cause of convection      73 164Ч166
Heat flux as cause of oceanic currents      11 119
Heat flux as cause of winds      126
Heat flux by oceanic currents      234 277Ч278
Heat flux in baroclinic instability      233Ч234
Heat flux poleward      272Ч273 276 277Ч278
Height scale definition      7Ч8
Height scale use in scaling      9 41Ч42 44Ч45 62Ч63 129Ч131
Height scale values      41
Hermite polynomials      289
Hockey field      29
Homogeneous fluid      49 54Ч55 63 78
Howard, L.N.      101 102 108 158 159
Hurricanes force balance      252
Hurricanes Hugo      3 5Ч6 262
Hurricanes prediction of trajectories      2 259
Hydrological cycle      270Ч271 280
Hydrostatic balance      43 130 170 175 181 225 255
Hydrostatic pressure      38 215
Ice edge      194
Icebergs      68 69
Incompressibility      36 124
Indian Ocean      110 292
1 2 3
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