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Popper K.R. Ч Quantum theory and the schism in physics
Popper K.R. Ч Quantum theory and the schism in physics

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Ќазвание: Quantum theory and the schism in physics

јвтор: Popper K.R.


Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl PopperТs Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of PopperТs work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of PopperТs interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents PopperТs classic statement on quantum physics and offers important insights into his thinking on problems of method within science and physics as a whole.

язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

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√од издани€: 1982

 оличество страниц: 250

ƒобавлена в каталог: 23.02.2014

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ѕредметный указатель
'End-of-the-road-thesis'      xvii xviii 5Ч7 11Ч74 19
'End-of-the-road-thesis', abandoned by Pauli      xviii
'End-of-the-road-thesis', connected with 'normal science'      6
'End-of-the-road-thesis', refuted by discovery of new particles      12
'End-of-the-road-thesis', rejected by Einstein      6
'End-of-the-road-thesis', supported by Bohr      10
'End-of-the-road-thesis', underlies clash between Bohr and Einstein      7 10
'End-of-the-road-thesis', von Neumann's alleged proof of      11 see "Copenhagen
'Kickability', and reality      46 72Ч73 81 84 193
'Wave picture'      42 45 64 84 140
Absolute space and time      20 25 29Ч30
Abstractness, in theories      97
Accelerations      169
Action at a distance      xviii 16Ч22 25Ч26 29Ч30 166 173 see "Relativity"
Action at a distance is incompatible with special relativity      26
Action at a distance is not excluded by realism      xviii 25Ч27
Action at a distance, apparent confirmation by Aspect's experiments      xviii
Action at a distance, Einstein's view of      20Ч22 25Ч26
Action at a distance, exclusion of      see "Locality principle"
Action at a distance, implied by Copenhagen interpretation      16 21Ч22 see
Actual, transition from the possible to the      78 123 133 sections 10 13 185Ч186 see
Adams, W.      xvi
Agassi, J.      xv 136n
Anderson, C.D.      12
Andersson, G.      32n
Anti-rationalist atmosphere      section 19
Appraisal, rational, of metaphysical theories      32 172Ч173 sections 28 see "Theory"
Approximation of indeterministic reality by deterministic theories      see "Correspondence argument" see deterministic"
Argument      see "Critical discussion"
Aristotle      128 132Ч133 163n 165 205Ч206 209
Arithmetization of cosmology, Pythagorean metaphysical research programme of      162
Aspect's (and related) experiment, as crucial between Einstein and Lorentz interpretations of Lorentz transformations      xviii 22Ч25 30n
Aspect, A.      xviii
Atomic energy, peaceful use of      199n
Atomic stability, problem of      46Ч49 see Propensity metaphysical
Atomic stability, replaced by statistical problem      49
Atomism      162 164Ч165 168Ч169 205
Atomism, metaphysical research programme of      162
Atomism, relation of, to Newton's dynamics      168
Atoms and the void      162 165
Atoms as vortices of ether (Bernoulli)      163 172
Atoms, constitution of      38 136
Atoms, rejected by Leibniz      167
Autarky      209
Axiomatization, of the calculus of probability      65 see calculus
Bartley, W.W., III      xvi 27n 32n
Bayesian probability      67 see subjective
Bell's theorem      xviii 16 22 24 25 see
Bell's theorem as imposing new propensities      23
Bell's theorem, tests of, as crucial between Einstein and Lorentz interpretations of special relativity      25
Bell, J.S.      xviii 6 14 16n 20n 22n 23Ч24n 25 30 98n
Bellarmino, R.F.R.      2 102 173
Berkeley, G.      2 102Ч103n 172Ч173
Bernoulli, J.      66 105 108 110 163Ч164
Beyer, R. T.      111n
biology      80 86 160
Biology and propensities      209Ч210
Birkhoff, G.      98n
Block universe, Parmenides's metaphysical research programme of      162 166
Bohm, D.      xviii 16n 22n 23Ч24 36n 46 85 100 151n 174Ч175n
Bohr, N.      xviiЧxviii 6Ч10 12Ч14 20n 21n 22 30 36n 39n 40qn 45 47qn 48Ч50 53n 55 58qn 59Ч60 63Ч64 71 78n 85 97Ч98 100Ч101 102n 103n 119qn 121n 122qn 123n 125 126n 131Ч132 133n 135n 143qn 148nЧ153 155Ч156 158 172 174Ч175 179Ч182 189 199 206n 208n
Boltzmann, L.      4 104 109 111 113 115Ч116 157
Bondi, H.      82 202
Bopp, F.      37qn 39n 48 50 63 82n
Born, H.      8n
Born, M.      8n 10 13Ч14 47 48qn 49q 53n 82n 83n 94 100 102n 105 115qn 116Ч117 118qn 121 125nq 126n 129n 130qn 131q 132Ч133 136n 138Ч140 141n 151n 158 164 174n 175n 189 195Ч196 199 202n 207
Boscovich, R.G.      163 168 169 170 171
Bose's principle      198
Bose, S.N.      198 208
Bothe, W.      189
Boyle, R.      163 206
Breck, A. D.      98n
Bridge, alleged, from non-statistical assumptions to statistical conclusions      66Ч68 196 see law
Bruno, G.      163 173
Bub, J.      36n 85n
Bunge, M.      35n 37n 63n 71n 98n
Calculus of probability      see "Probability calculus
Callippus      162
Cantelli, F.      110n 117
cartesian      166 see
Cartesian metaphysical research programme      see "Metaphysical research programmes Cartesian"
Cassirer, E.      159n
Cauchy, A.L.      171
Causation, problem of      165
Causation, push theory of      163 166
Chadwick, J.      12
Change, as actualization of potentialities or propensities      159 160
Change, as actualization of potentialities or propensities, problem of      162 165
Change, as actualization of potentialities or propensities, reality of      162
Change, as actualization of potentialities or propensities, theories of      165 173
Clash, among metaphysical research programmes      see "Metaphysical research programmes" "Realism"
Clash, between theories and reality      3
Clauser, J.F.      16n 22n 24n 25
Clockwork theory of the world      163Ч166
Clockwork theory of the world, refuted      164
Cohen, R.S.      32n
Collapse of the state vector, of wave packet      see "Reduction of the wave packet" "Copenhagen
Common sense      29 159
Commutation relations      13 53
Complementarity, Bohr's principle of      10 50 103 110 155 174 177 see of "Measurement of "Theories not
Complementarity, Bohr's principle of, breakdown of link      10
Complementarity, Bohr's principle of, linked to particle-wave duality      10 64
Completeness of formalism, distinguished from completeness of interpreted theory      123
Completeness of mathematical formalism      section 9
Completeness, alleged, of quantum theory      xvii 1 5 7 14 19 39 63 122 see "End-of-the-road-thesis" "Quantum
Completeness, confusion of, with soundness      39
Completeness, refuted by discovery of new particles      12
Completeness, refuted by self-registering box experiment      122
Completeness, rejected by Einstein      6
Completeness, von Neumann's alleged proof of      11
Compressibility, problem of      168Ч169
Concepts, conceptual frameworks      42Ч46 see
Conklin, E.K.      30n
Consciousness      35 41 75 86 158
Conservation laws      206 210
Conservation laws and theory of Bohr, Kramers, and Slater      189
Conservation laws in filmstrip argument      184
Conservation laws, do not entail determinism      189Ч192 see Everett's
Conservation laws, violated by Everett's theory      92
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory      1 5 6 10 15Ч18 21 24Ч25 28Ч29 35tЧ41 97Ч100 119Ч120 140 175 206 207 see "Crucial extending "Dualism "EPR-argument" "Probability subjective "Quantum "Reduction "Subjectivism"
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, anti-rational tendencies of      99
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, as view of Bohr and Heisenberg      6
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, clashes with locality principle      21
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, implies action at a distance      xvii 16 21Ч22
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, obsoleteness of      37 39Ч41
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, periods of      xviiЧxviii 37Ч39
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, Schroedinger's criticism of      125Ч126 127
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, test of      27Ч30
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, the observer in      5 35Ч41 4 50 86Ч89 119 189Ч190
Copernicus, N.      102 163
Correspondence argument, modifying classical determinism      177 section see "Theory deterministic"
Correspondence, Bohr's principle of      47
Cosmology      1 31 162Ч165 173 see
Creation of matter      see "Matter"
Creativity, human      xviii
Critical discussion of metaphysical speculations      32 172Ч173 199Ч201
Critical discussion, criticism, role of, in the growth of knowledge      33Ч34 41 211 see
Critical discussion, deterioration of      156Ч158
Critical realism      see Realism Criticizability of 199; 201 section extending 27Ч30.
D'Espagnat, B.      16n
Dahrendorf, R.      xvi
deBroglie, L.      14 24n 36 47Ч48 57 82 100 125n 126n 142 151 158 164 171 174 176 195 208
Definition, unimportance of      45Ч46 see conceptual
Demarcation, criterion of, within metaphysics      211 see "Metaphysical
Democritus      168 170
Demoivre, A.      67
Descartes's, metaphysical research programme      162
Descartes's, principle of causality      164
Descartes's, theory of free will      192
Descartes, R.      2 162Ч168 170Ч173 192n 206
Determinism and statistical mechanics      117
Determinism is not entailed by conservation laws      189Ч192
Determinism, classical, modified by a correspondence argument      section 22 see "Probability subjective "Subjectivism"
Determinism, indeterministic reinterpretation of      160 181
Determinism, issue of      174
Determinism, Laplacean      66
Determinism, leads to subjective interpretation of probability and to subjectivism in probabilistic physics      99 104Ч106 110 135
DeWitt, B.S.      4n 89qn 90qn
Differential equations, principle of      163
Dirac, P.A.M.      12Ч14 48n 79qn 100 125 132 135 137n 156 158 189Ч190 196Ч198 202
Direction of time      see "Time"
Discontinuity      136 183
Dispositions, dispositional properties      127 159 198
Distribution function      51Ч52
Distribution function, not a property of an element      52 82
Disturbance, theory of, as theory of change      165
Dualism, duality of matter and form      163 see "Copenhagen "Field" "Matter" "Particle" "Propensity "Propensity metaphysical "Quantum "Wave"
Dualism, duality of particle and wave and of matter and field      7Ч8 10 52 53 54 64 79Ч86 171 206 sections 26
Dualism, duality of potentialities      207
Dualism, duality, rejected by author      126
Duane's third quantum rule      73
Duane, W.      73n
Dynamism, metaphysical research programme of      163 165 169 206
Eckart, C.      43n 83
Eddington, A.S.      12 38
Einstein Ч Bohr Correspondence      8
Einstein Ч Bohr debate      7 13 14 20Ч22 39
Einstein's relativity theory      see "Relativity"
Einstein, A.      xviiЧxviii 2n 3n 4 6Ч7 8n 9 10n 11 13Ч14 15n 18qn 19 20qn 21 22 23n 24n 25qn 26qn 27 29 30n 34 35n 36 37qn 38q 39n 40n 46Ч50 53n 56 58n 63 76 79 84 98n 99Ч100 102qn 103nq 104nq 115 119n 122Ч123 143n 144 147 148n 149Ч151 155Ч158 160 164 171 173Ч177 189qn 190 192Ч195 198 201 202qn 203 204n 206Ч207 208qn 211
Elasticity, problem of      168Ч169 171
Electromagnetic theory of matter      xvii 37Ч38 192Ч194 see
Electron      11 38 138 193
Electron can have a precise position and momentum      63
Electron in quantum jumps      135
Electron, de Broglie's and Schrodinger's theory of      195
Electron, Dirac's theory of      197Ч198 202
Electronic charge, problem of      39 201
Elements, periodic system of      38
entropy      109Ч117 see
Entropy and probability      113Ч114 see
Entropy, alleged dependence on knowledge      109Ч117 section
Entropy, objective characterizations of      111Ч112 see metaphysical
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment]      xvii xviii 14 73Ч22 63 98 99 section see "Bell's "Completeness" "Locality "Spin" "State
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], assumes principle of locality      19
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], author's invalid anticipation of      15 98
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], author's new extension of      27Ч30
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], Bell's reformulation of      xviii
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], Bohm's version of      xviii 16 22Ч24
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], Bohr's criticism of      148Ч151
EPR-argument (or experiment) [Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, thought experiment], tested in Bell form      24
Essentialism, metaphysical research programme of      127 128 163
Euclid      162Ч163 205
Eudoxus      162
Euler, L.      13477
Everett's 'many worlds' interpretation      89Ч95
Everett's 'many worlds' interpretation and film-strip argument      187
Everett's 'many worlds' interpretation, illustrated by pin board model      91
Everett's 'many worlds' interpretation, implies fusion of infinity of real worlds      93
Everett's 'many worlds' interpretation, violates conservation laws      92
Everett, H.      89nЧ92 93n 94Ч95 187
Exclusion principle      13 134Ч135 201
Existence      see "Reality Expansion of
Experiment, Aspect's (and related)      xviii 22Ч25 30
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), Crucial, extending the original EPR-argument      see there
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), dependence of on theory      41 80
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), imaginary, author's own invalid      15 98
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), one-slit      57 145Ч147 see
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), Pin board      see "there"
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), relativity to specification      80
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), repetition of      72 76 144
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), scatter      see "EPR-argument"
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), selfregistering boxes      119Ч121
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen      see "EPR-argument"
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), twoЧslit      58Ч60 88 section
Experiment, Aspect's (and related), with a semi-permeable mirror      76Ч77 155Ч156
Expert      172
Explanations, appraisal of      161
Extension      159 166Ч167
Faraci, G.      24n
Faraday, M.      46 103 158 162 164 170Ч171 173 176Ч177 193 206
Feenberg, E.      52
Feigl, H.      43n 52n
Fenyes, I.      134n
Fermi, E.      12 135
Feyerabend, P.      32n 71n 72n 73n 153n
Feynman, R.P.      83
Field theory      164 195Ч196 section see
Field, dualism of matter and      section 26
Field, dualism of matter and, determining propensities      see "Propensity fields"
Field, dualism of matter and, electromagnetic      37Ч38
Field, dualism of matter and, quantized      196
Field, dualism of matter and, reality of Einsteinian (Faradayan)      193
Field, dualism of matter and, theory (Einsteinian) of unified      34 section
Film strips, sequences of, argument      sections 22 23 24
Film strips, sequences of, argument, 'classical', visualizing one's changing world      section 22 see
Film strips, sequences of, argument, modelling aspects of reduction of the wave packet      section 23 see
Film strips, sequences of, argument, of propensities      section 24 see metaphysical
Fluids, theory of      206
Force, forces, fields of      127 164
Force, forces, fields of, four fundamental      38
Force, forces, fields of, in Boscovich      163 168Ч169 170n
Force, forces, fields of, in Faraday      164 171
Force, forces, fields of, in Kant      163 168 169 170Ч172
Force, forces, fields of, in Maxwell      164 171 206
Force, forces, fields of, Leibnizian      163 167Ч168
Force, forces, fields of, repulsive      167Ч169 171
Formalism, mathematical, of quantum theory      122 section
Framework, conceptual      see "Concepts"
Free will, Descartes on      192n
Freed, J.      xv
Freed, L.      xv
Freedman, S.J.      24n
Freedom, human      160
Frequency interpretation of probability      104 144 see
Frisch, O.R.      63n
Fry, E.S.      24n
Galileo      46 102 158q 163 173Ч174 189 200
Garuccio, A.      24n
Geiger, H.      189
Gell-Mann, M.      10qn
GEOMETRIZATION, of cosmology, Plato's in unified field theory      164
GEOMETRIZATION, of cosmology, Plato's, metaphysical research programme of      162Ч163 205
Gerhardt, C.      169n
Gibbs, J.W.      109 137
Goedel, K.      204n
Gold, A.      202
Gordon, W.      13
Graham, N.      4n 89n 90n
Gravity      127
Great numbers, law of, of Bernoulli and Cantelli      66Ч67 106 110 section
Green, H.S.      202n
Growth of knowledge      see "Knowledge"
Gurkowski, S.      24n
Haas, A.      60
Hamblin, C.L.      69n
Hanson, N.R.      12n 43n
HARMONIC RESOLVING POWER, principle of, relation to indeterminacy relations      55Ч56
Harre, R.      32n
Heisenberg's formulae      xvii 4Ч6 16Ч17 49 53nЧ60 section 153 174 191
Heisenberg's formulae as explanation of statistical character of quantum mechanics      4 49 50
Heisenberg's formulae as setting limits to scatter      54 203
Heisenberg's formulae, author's own interpretation of as Scatter relations      xvii
Heisenberg's formulae, interpreted as limits to knowledge      5
Heisenberg's formulae, refer to population of particles      54
Heisenberg's formulae, relation to wave-particle duality      10 53n
Heisenberg's formulae, tests of      203 see "Measurement of "Quantum observer "Scatter
Heisenberg, W.      2n 4Ч7 8qn 9qn 10 12Ч14 17 18n 20 23n 28Ч29 35n 36n 37n 40qn 41qn 48qn 49n 53n 54 55n 56 60 61qn 62qn 63q 66n 76qn 77 78qn 79 83 85qn 97Ч98 100 119 123qn 124q 125n 132q 133qn 136qn 137q 138 139q 140 143Ч144 146 153 158 164n 165n 172 174Ч175 183 185 189 191 195 202n 203qn 204 206nq
Heitler, W.      119qn 120qn 121n 123Ч124 147n
Helm, G.      67
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