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Smil V. Ч The Earth's biosphere: evolution, dynamics, and change
Smil V. Ч The Earth's biosphere: evolution, dynamics, and change

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Ќазвание: The Earth's biosphere: evolution, dynamics, and change

јвтор: Smil V.

јннотаци€:

Smil, in a presentation marked by balance and clarity, synthesizes the field of science dealing with the biosphere. It is an interdisciplinary one, combining organic chemistry, geology, solar physics, microbiology, zoology, and more. Whatever characteristics the biosphere displays on a global scale depend on living matter's fundamental chemistry, so Smil diagrams the structural backbone of cells Ч molecules such as cellulose or DNA. Moving next through types of metabolism, such as the ATP cycle, Smil explains the resultant chemical products and how they become fixed or cycled through the ground, water, or atmosphere. Addressing concerns about human influences on the biosphere, Smil describes them, but he is a scientist to the core (at the University of Manitoba) and is hesitant to proclaim doom as the certain outcome. That scientific humility only enhances Smil's work. A superior, comprehensive survey.


язык: en

–убрика: Ѕиологи€/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 2002

 оличество страниц: 346

ƒобавлена в каталог: 11.12.2005

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
Acidification      17 233Ч235 249Ч250
Acids, amino      31 33Ч34 36Ч37 53 174
Acids, carbonic $(H_2CO_3)$      135 234
Acids, fatty      31Ч32
Acids, methanesulfonic (MSA)      144
Acids, nucleic      28 30Ч31 34
Acids, silicic      151
Acids, sulfuric $(H_2SO_4)$      143 146 173 250
ACRIM      101
Adenine      33 38
Adenosine, diphosphate (ADP)      38 147
Adenosine, triphosphate (ATP)      28 37Ч40 53 65 115 147
Aerosols      233
Africa      21 120 161 178 190Ч191 195 210 212 229 239 242
Africa, South      20 50 91 142 242
Albedo      103 107 144 245Ч246
Algae      29 58 68 87 224 227
Altitude      157Ч161 179Ч180
Amazon      88 127 130 191 212
Amazonia      20 88 130 210 215 240 246
America, Latin      191 195 233
America, North      160 210 233Ч235 243Ч244 247 249 250 261Ч262 267
Ammonia $(NH_3)$      49 65 75Ч76 111 137 140Ч141 229 232 248Ч249
Ammonia $(NH_3)$, Haber Ч Bosch synthesis      248
Ammonia $(NH_3)$, volatilization      140
Ammonification      140
Amphibians      80
Angiosperms      69Ч70
Animals      See also individual species
Animals evolution      64 79Ч80
Animals in the ocean      162Ч169
Animals locomotion      79
Animals, desert      212Ч213
Animals, domestic      186 192
Animals, Ediacaran      64
Antarctica      23Ч24 42 48 60 85 89 108 125 174 176Ч177 237Ч238 240 253Ч254
Anthropomass      147 186Ч187 269
Antibiotics      245
Ants      222Ч223
Apatites      147Ч148
Aphids      161 222
Apollo      17Ч18
Apoptosis      39
Aquifers      246Ч247
Aragonite      15 137
Archaea      77 82 85
Archaebacteria      82
Arctic      174 180 233 254 256
Arthropods      80 87 209 216
Asia      211 217 233Ч234 249
Assam      130
Asteroids      44 91
Astronomical unit (AU)      44Ч45 96
Atmosphere      7 17 19 44 45 47 53 66 102Ч103 109 128 155Ч158
Atmosphere, attributes      11Ч12
Atmosphere, changes      232Ч237 (see also Acidification; CFCs; $CO_2$)
Atmosphere, evolution of      48Ч51
Australia      48 55Ч58 64 88 130 142 179 242
Autotrophs      7 41 56
AVHRR      20Ч21 189Ч190
bacteria      7Ч8 11 30 38Ч39 41Ч42 65Ч66 74Ч78 82 85Ч86 158Ч159 162Ч165 169Ч180 193 196Ч197 208 224 227 257
Bacteria, acidophilic      177Ч178
Bacteria, alkaliphilic      178
Bacteria, extremophilic      169Ч180 211Ч213
Bacteria, green non-sulfur      66
Bacteria, green sliding      66
Bacteria, Knallgas      76
Bacteria, methanogenic      57Ч58 76Ч77
Bacteria, nitrifying      75Ч76
Bacteria, psychrophilic      175Ч176
Bacteria, purple non-sulfur      66
Bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing      75
Bacteria, thermophilic      54 173Ч174
Bandwith      270
Bees      157 221 245
Bees, African      245
Beetles      88 243
Bhopal      22
Bioaccumulation      11
Bioaerosols      157Ч159
Biodiversity      23 57 81Ч89 227 240 242 260Ч261 264
Biodiversity, hotspots      88 242
Bioinvasions      243Ч245
Biomass      7Ч8 12 28 30Ч31 130Ч131 133 192Ч193 195Ч197 227 283Ч284
Biomass of the biosphere      181Ч187
Biomass, composition of      28 30Ч31 182
Biomes      21 209Ч219 258
Biomineralizers      133
Biosfem      5Ч10 187
Biosphere and plate tectonics      119Ч121
Biosphere, as a superorganism      230Ч231
Biosphere, biomass of      7Ч9 181Ч187 193Ч195
Biosphere, breath      135Ч136
Biosphere, cycles      123Ч154 245Ч251 278Ч282
Biosphere, deep hot      53 171Ч172
Biosphere, definitions      1Ч2 6 14
Biosphere, energy flows      207Ч209
Biosphere, extent of      155Ч178
Biosphere, future of      265Ч267 271
Biosphere, human impact on      12Ч18 22Ч26 232Ч263 265Ч269
Biosphere, management of      259Ч262
Biosphere, services      256Ч259
Biosphere, valuing of      257Ч259
Birds      157 159Ч161 177 179 209 211 218Ч219 221 241
Boundary, K/T      92Ч93
Brazil      26 88
Cacti      74 212
Calcite      150
Calcium (Ca)      11 28 135 146 148 149
California      20 178 200 209 223
Canada      177 209 217 240
Carbohydrates      30 37
Carbohydrates, volatile organic (VOC)      234
Carbon (C)      11 15 27Ч28 50 131Ч132 135 194 196Ч197 234 236 269
Carbon (C) and climate change      252Ч256
Carbon (C) in biomass      183Ч187
Carbon (C) in photosynthesis      69 71Ч74 115 208 255
Carbon (C), chemistry      27Ч28
Carbon (C), compensation Depth (CCD)      150
Carbon (C), concentrations      103Ч105 108Ч112 131 133Ч136 170 234 255
Carbon (C), cycle      131Ч136 255
Carbon (C), dioxide $(CO_2)$      11 15 26 29 41 44Ч45 49Ч50 53 56 65 69 76Ч77 89 90 93 140 191 229Ч230 259
Carbon (C), disulfide $(CS_2)$      146
Carbon (C), isotopes      55Ч56
Carbon (C), monoxide (CO)      76 233Ч234
Carbon (C), organic      131 135
Carbonate, calcium ($CaCO_3$ limestone)      112 133Ч134 148 150 169 216 256
Carbonate, magnesium $(MgCO_3)$      134
Carbonate, sodium $(Na_2CO_3)$      173
Caribbean      159 163 242Ч243
Carnivores      41 78 185
Catastrophism      89
Caves      169
cells      38Ч41 60 62 257
Cells, sizes      38 60
Cells, walls      40
Cellulose      31 40 69
CERES      106
Cerrado      217Ч218
CFCs      See Chlorofluorocarbons
Chaparral      219
Chemolithotrophs      65 74Ч76 194
Chemoorganotrophs      65
Chemotrophs      65 165
Chernobyl      22
Chicxulub      91Ч92
China      26 64 178 180 240Ч241 250 261Ч262
Chlorine (Cl)      28 143
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)      23 26 234 236Ч237 256
Chlorophyll      19 69 71 101 151 189
Chloroplasts      68 202 224
Civilization      229 231
Civilization and the biosphere      229Ч271
Civilization, collapse      263
Civilization, evolution      231Ч232
Clathrates      255
Climate      45
Climate and DMS      144Ч146
Climate and evolution      89Ч90 113Ч114
Climate change      23 26 251Ч256
Cnidarians      80 218 220
CO2      See Carbon dioxide
Cobalt (Co)      28
Coccolithophorids      144 151 225 255
Coevolution      88 220
Colorado      241 246
comets      52
Composition of      28 30Ч31 182
Computers      269Ч270
Congo      130 211 215
Conifers      214
Constant, solar      101
Corals      159 163 218Ч220
Craters      91Ч92
Crops      73 115 184 195 221 239 249
Cryptobiosis      78 157 173
Cyanobacteria      7 50 56Ч57 65Ч68 89 139 224 231
Cycles      123Ч154 245Ч251 278Ч282
Cysteine      34Ч35
Cytoplasm      39
Dams      246
DDT      14 22
Deccan Traps      267
Decomposition      11 140Ч141 148 229
Deforestation      23 26 239Ч240 242
Denitrification      123 140 249
Density of humans      186Ч187
Density of organisms      205Ч207
Denudation      147Ч148
Deserts      212Ч213
Deuterostomes      80
Diatoms      75 151 153 219 224Ч225 247
Dinoflagellates      144 219Ч220 224
Dinosaurs      92Ч93
Disulfide iron ($FeS_2$; pyrite)      11 50Ч51 53 142Ч143
Divers      166Ч168
DNA      29 32Ч34 36Ч37 39Ч40 54Ч56 68Ч69 78 80 83 85 137 147 265Ч266
Dolomite      134 137 150
Dolphins      167
Drilling      171
Dust      143 153 159
Earth      42Ч48 124 230Ч231 267Ч269 271
Earth crust      47Ч48 133 146 150 156 230
Earth from space      17Ч18
Earth heat      116Ч118
Earth mantle      117Ч118 134
Earth snowball      89Ч90
Earth, formation of      46^17
Earth, life on      6Ч9 27Ч41
Earth, radiation balance      95 102Ч110 232 234 236Ч237
Earthworms      170 185
Ecosystems, aquatic      206Ч207
Ectotherms      79 99 192 200
Efficiency, ecological      202
Efficiency, trophic      200 207Ч209
El Nino      26 127
Elephants      209 217
Endophyts      139
Endosymbionts      221Ч225
Endotherms      79 192 201 209
Energy      6Ч8 13 22 95Ч121 261Ч262 264Ч265
Energy in locomotion      79
Energy in stars      43
Energy in the biosphere      6Ч8 95Ч121
Energy storage      37Ч38
Energy, consumption of      261Ч262
Energy, free      12
Enzymes      29 33 37 40 50 54 61Ч62 71 82 174 222
Eons, Phanerozoic      55 63 89 90 118 230
Eons, Precambrian      48 55Ч58
Eras, Archean      8 28 47Ч50 62 65Ч67 80 91 108 112 118 139 145 230
Eras, Hadean      28 46Ч47 53
Eras, Mesozoic      117 121
Eras, Proterozoic      48 50 64 67 79 230
ERBE      106
ERBS      101
Estuaries      218
Eukaryotes      39Ч41 58 86Ч87 174 224
Europe      209Ч210 234 240 250 254 263 267Ч268
Euryarchaeota      85
Eutrophication      131 182 232 249
evaporation      125 127Ч129 172
Evapotranspiration      123 128Ч129 140 245Ч246
Evolution      8Ч9 45Ч46 56 63Ч64 86 269
Evolution, eras      275
Evolution, symbiotic      223Ч225
Exobiology      58
Extinctions      89Ч91 241Ч242 264 267
Extremophiles      169Ч180 194 211Ч213
Fermentation      76Ч77 158
Fertilizers      153Ч154 248
Fires      239Ч240
FISH      80 163Ч164 175Ч176 193 218Ч219 242Ч243
Foraminifers      163Ч164
Forest      86 140 213Ч217 238Ч239 246 257
Forest, boreal      209Ч210 214Ч215
Forest, canopies      216
Forest, temperate deciduous      214Ч215
Forest, tropical rain      183 210Ч211 214Ч216
Fossils      56 63Ч64 68
Fuels, biomass      135
Fuels, fossil      124 132 135 233Ч234 248 256 264
Fungi      11 69 77 79 82 87 131 148 158 170 182 184Ч185 220Ч221
Gaia      230Ч231
Galaxies      42 96
Galileo      231
Ganges      130
Geese      159
Gemini      17
Genes      32
Genomes      12 83 86 179
Genomics      32Ч33
Glaciers      126 128
Gneiss      48
Gondwana      120
Grasses      217
Grasslands      210 217Ч218 226Ч227
Grasslands, burning of      239Ч240
Gravity      44
Greenhouse gases      23 25Ч26 44 47 103Ч105 107 111 234 236Ч237 252Ч256
Greenland      48 55 108 210
Gulf of Mexico      249 263
Gymnosperms      69
Hawai'i      85 130 91 242Ч243
Heartbeat      204
Helium (He)      28 47 96Ч97 265
Herbivores      41 78 192 208Ч209
Heterotrophs      7 41 76Ч80 140
Himalayas      47 121 135 146 159Ч160 180
Huanghe      163 246
Humus      132
Hydrogen (H2)      28 43^4 47 49 53 65 67 96 124
Hydrosphere      7Ч9
Hyperdiversity      88
IBP      15
Ice Age      90 113 251 267Ч268
Ice cores      108
Ice, bacteria in      176Ч177
IGBP      23 191
IGY      14Ч15
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