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Easterling K.E. — Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding
Easterling K.E. — Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding

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Название: Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding

Автор: Easterling K.E.

Аннотация:

Providing a thorough introduction, this second edition has been updated and expanded to cover new topics such as the numerical analytical techniques now being used in industry. This book should be of use to welding professionals and those studying metallurgy and materials science.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Технология/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: 2 Sub edition

Год издания: 1992

Количество страниц: 280

Добавлена в каталог: 11.03.2011

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
$A_{3}$ temperature      24
Alexander Kielland disaster      242—257
Aluminium      32 33 62
Aluminium alloy welds      177—179
Aluminium, copper      81
Arc efficiency      18—19
Arc welding      2 3 4 12 see
Austenite      96 97—98 101 103 104 106 109 116
Austenite, formers      108 119 164
Austenite, stabilizers      108 119
Bainite      93 106 107 108 109 110
Base metal      56 127
Basic electrodes      4 5 8
Basic electrodes in arc welding      12
Basic electrodes, effect on properties      121—122 123
Basic electrodes, hydrogen content      13 14
Basicity      5 6
Basicity in MMA welds      6
Basicity, effect on weld properties      8
Borides      140
Carbides      138 139 140
Carbides, coarsening      141
Carbides, dissolution      143—146 149—153 157 158
Carbides, effect on ferrite growth      108 109 110
Carbides, formation      107 138
Carbides, mixed      146
Carbides, niobium      109 110 139 157
Carbides, solubility      139
Carbides, stability      138—140
Carbon equivalent      132—135 262
Case study      152 153 236
Case study, Alexander Kielland disaster      242—257
Casting      56 69 84
Casting, continuous      56
Casting, ingot      56
CCT diagrams      see "Continuous cooling diagrams"
Charpy V-notch testing      121 122 123 198 199
Chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steels, effect of preheat      237 242
Chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steels, reheating      236—239
cod      see "Crack opening displacement"
Cold cracking      10 133 216—233 252
Cold cracking at grain boundaries      226 227 228 231
Cold cracking in implant test      223 224 226
Cold cracking, $C_{equiv}$ effect      132—135 262
Cold cracking, cracking tests      223 261
Cold cracking, critical factors      216 219 229
Cold cracking, fisheyes      229 232
Cold cracking, incubation time of      216
Cold cracking, mechanism      229—233
Cold cracking, role of hydrogen      219—224
Cold cracking, role of microstructure      226—229
Cold cracking, role of stress      224—226
Cold cracking, types of      216 217 218
Constitutional supercooling      78 83
consumables      4—9
Continuous cooling diagrams      93 109 118—119 176
copper      32
Crack opening displacement      197 198 199
Cracking      191
Cracking in welds      191—242
Cracking, cold      191 216—233
Cracking, dovetail      200—201
Cracking, end      203
Cracking, hydrogen      216—224
Cracking, reheat      233—242
Cracking, solidification      200—207
Cracking, testing formulae      261
creep      233 236 239 242
Crystal growth      69—84
Crystal growth, direction of      63 65—66 80 82
Crystal growth, speed of      65 84
De Long diagram      101
Dendrite      82 83
Dendritic growth      85—87
Diffuse source solution, heat flow equation      27—30
Diffusion      90 100—101
Diffusion in grain growth      146 149
Diffusion in particle coarsening      138 141
Diffusion in steel weld metal      149 222
Diffusion in transformations      90
Diffusion of hydrogen in steel      220 221 230
Diffusion of hydrogen to grain boundaries      231
Diffusion, grain boundary      237 238 239
Diffusion, lattice      141 237 239
Diffusion, profiles at grain boundaries      103
Diffusionless transformations      95—97 see
Dilatometry      35
Dilution      15 56
Duplex stainless steel welds      97—103
Electrode      2 4—5 8
Electrode, basic      4—5 256
Electrode, coating types      4—5 9
Electrode, effect of size      180
Electrode, flux cored      4—5
Electrode, hydrogen content      9
Electrode, hydroscopic properties      5 8 9
Electrode, manipulation      15
Electrode, rutile      4—5
Electron beam welding      151
Electron beam welding, keyholing      85
Electroslag welding      3 4 33 151
Electroslag welding, refining of      87—89
End cracking      48 203
End cracking, avoidance      15 48
Epitaxial solidification      66—69
Equilibrium composition      160
Fatigue      249 250 257
FEM      see "Finite element analysis"
Ferrite      98 103 109
Ferrite, acicular      93 107 112—115 119 169 171—172
Ferrite, allotriomorphs      105
Ferrite, formation at grain boundaries      90 91 94 104
Ferrite, formers      108
Ferrite, massive      107
Ferrite, nucleation at inclusions      91 111—118
Ferrite, proeutectoid      93 106 119 122 167
Ferrite, stabilizers      122
Ferrite, Widmanstaetten      105 107 112 119
Finite element analysis      32 48—52
Fisheye fracture      229 232
Flux      2 4 8 14 55
Flux for submerged arc welding      5
Flux, basic      4
Flux, basicity      4
Flux, coating      4 55
Flux, composition      5 55
Flux, hydrogen content      5 8
Flux, hydroscopic properties      5 8 9
Flux, rutile      5
Flux, viscosity      7
Fracture      191—200
Fracture energy release rate      196
Fracture, fisheye      229 232
Fracture, toughness      191—200
Fracture, toughness testing      196—200
Fusion line      80 84 164—167 207
Fusion line, liquation cracking at      165 166 207
Fusion line, melting at      165 166 207
Fusion line, reactions at      164—167 207
Fusion welding      2—18
Fusion welding, solidification theory      49—69
Gas reactions      10—14
Gas reactions, absorption in welds      10
Gas reactions, carburizing      7
Gas reactions, decarburizing      9
Gas reactions, hydrogen absorption      12—14
Gas reactions, hydrogen distribution in weld      12—14 219—224
Gas reactions, nitrogen      10—12
Gas-metal arc welding      see "Arc welding"
Gases      10—14
Gases in welds      10 see
Gases, hydrogen      12 see
Gases, nitrogen      10—12 see
GMA welding      see "Arc welding" "Gas-metal
Grain boundary      90 91 94 113 116
Grain boundary, diffusion      102 237 238 239
Grain boundary, energy      90
Grain boundary, enrichment of      102 103 104 231 238
Grain boundary, fracture      192 226 227 231 234 235 239 240
Grain boundary, ledges      240
Grain boundary, nucleation at      90 91 94 117
Grain boundary, sink      231
Grain boundary, sliding      233 241
Grain growth      126 146—155
Grain growth diagrams      151 152 154 157 158 181 237 255
Grain growth, control of      87—88 157 160 164 183 185
Grain growth, diagrams      151 152 154 157 158 181 237 256
Grain growth, during welding      102 103 126 183 185
Grain growth, effect of particle coarsening      153—155
Grain growth, effect of particle pinning      147 148 149 164
Grain growth, kinetics      146 159
Grain growth, zone      126 159
Grain refined zone      126 167—169
Hardness      174—175 253
Hardness changes, aluminium alloy welds      177—179
Hardness contour diagram      177
HAZ      see "Heat-affected zone"
Heat flow      18—34
Heat flow in solidification      56 see
Heat flow, three-dimensional      20
Heat flow, two-dimensional      20
Heat input      18—19
Heat-affected zone      126—188
Heat-affected zone in multi-run welds      183
Heat-affected zone, hardnesses in      179
Heat-affected zone, microstructure      126 156 167 168 169—172 176 180 181
Heat-affected zone, properties      169
Heat-affected zone, Rosenthal equation limitations      27 29
Heat-affected zone, sub-zones      126 156 167 168
Heat-affected zone, thermal cycles      184
Heat-affected zone, toughness      172 186
Heat-flow equations      18—34
Heat-flow equations for electroslag welding      32
Heat-flow equations, general heat flow      18
Heat-flow equations, refinements      27—34
Heat-flow equations, simplified equations      24—27
Heat-flow equations, thick and thin plate cases      20 24—27
Hole drilling technique      44—45 48
Hot cracking      see "Solidification cracking"
Hydrogen      219—224
Hydrogen cracking      see "Cold cracking"
Hydrogen, absorption in welds      8 12—14
Hydrogen, apparent diffusivity of      222
Hydrogen, cracking      133 222 227 228
Hydrogen, cracking tests      223 261
Hydrogen, diffusion characteristics      220 221
Hydrogen, diffusion coefficients      220
Hydrogen, diffusivity in iron      220
Hydrogen, distribution ahead of crack tip      225 230
Hydrogen, effect of $\gamma-\alpha$ transformation on solubility      12
Hydrogen, effect of charging      219 224
Hydrogen, effect of fracture of steel      224
Hydrogen, effect on lattice strength      230 231
Hydrogen, embrittlement in lamellar tearing      216
Hydrogen, grain boundary sinks of      226 227 231
Hydrogen, in fisheye fracture      232
Hydrogen, levels in weld deposit      8 14
Hydrogen, measured levels in weld      9 13—14
Hydrogen, reaction      12
Hydrogen, reaction with cementite      227
Hydrogen, role in cold cracking      216—233
Hydrogen, role of stress      224—226
Hydrogen, sinks      216 231
Hydrogen, solubility in binary alloys      13—14
Hydrogen, solubility in iron      13—14
Hydrogen, sources of      13—14
IIW      see "International Institute of Welding"
Implant tests      223 224 226
Inclusions      111
Inclusions, cavitation at      209 211 213 214
Inclusions, cold cracking at      229 231
Inclusions, composition in duplex stainless steel      100
Inclusions, effect of basicity      8 121
Inclusions, ferrite forming at      112
Inclusions, fisheye nucleation at      232
Inclusions, nucleation at      113
Inclusions, reheat cracking at      242
Inclusions, site of ferrite nucleation      91 111 116 119
Inclusions, thermal contraction at      117
Interfacial energy      67 89 96 207
International Institute of Welding      133
Iron, carbon phase diagram      75 97
Iron, cementite phase diagram      104
Iron, chromium-nickel alloys      98
Iron, sulphur phase diagram      76 see
J integral stress-strain condition      195—196
Keyholing, electron beam welds      85
Lamellar tearing      209—216 257
Lamellar tearing in Alexander Kielland weld      250 251 252 256
Lamellar tearing, fracture characteristics      212 213 214
Lamellar tearing, main features      213
Lamellar tearing, mechanism      212—216
Lamellar tearing, microstructure      210
Lamellar tearing, susceptibility to      257
Lamellar tearing, testing for      215 261
Laser beams, heat flow equations      27—30
Lehigh test      223
Liquation cracking      165 166 207—209
Liquation cracking, effect of alloying on      166
Manganese sulphides      165 209 212
Manual Metal Arc welding      2 3
Manual metal arc welding in Alexander Kielland construction      248 254 256
Manual metal arc welding, aluminium alloy      178
Manual metal arc welding, effect of slag basicity in      6—7
Manual metal arc welding, example of multi-run      17
Manual metal arc welding, hydrogen content      13—14
Marangoni convection      57
Martensite      95—97 106 107 257
Martensite, morphology      95
Melting point      22
Metal-inert gas welding      2 3
Metal-inert gas welding of stainless steel      67
Metal-inert gas welding, aluminium alloy      179
Metal-inert gas welding, arc efficiency      18—19
Metal-inert gas welding, hydrogen content      13—14
Microanalysis measurements      163
Microstructure diagram      180 181
MIG welding      see "Metal-inert gas welding"
MMA      see "Manual metal arc welding"
Monel      22 83
Multi-run welds      183—187
Multi-run welds, effect of electrode size      186
Multi-run welds, effect on toughness      186
Multi-run welds, HAZs      185—187
Multi-run welds, influence on transition temperature      186
Multi-run welds, microstructure      17 184 185
Multi-run welds, reheating effects      184
Multi-run welds, thermal cycle of      187
Niobium      109
Niobium, carbide      109 110 139 157 158 237
Niobium, effect of      109 111
Niobium, role in weld metal      109 110
Niobium, steel      25 110 129 131 156 157 158
Nitrides      138 139 140 145
Nitrides, aluminium      139
Nitrides, mixed      160
Nitrides, titanium      139
Nitrides, vanadium      139
Nitrogen      10—12
Nitrogen, solubility in binary alloys      10—12
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