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Smith D.K., Alexander R.C. Ч Fumbling the future: how Xerox invented, then ignored, the first personal computer
Smith D.K., Alexander R.C. Ч Fumbling the future: how Xerox invented, then ignored, the first personal computer

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Ќазвание: Fumbling the future: how Xerox invented, then ignored, the first personal computer

јвторы: Smith D.K., Alexander R.C.

јннотаци€:

Ask consumers and users what names they associate with the multibillion dollar personal computer market, and they will answer IBM, Apple, Tandy, or Lotus. The more knowledgable of them will add the likes of Microsoft, Ashton-Tate, Compaq, and Borland. But no one will say Xerox. Fifteen years after it invented personal computing, Xerox still means "copy."

Fumbling the Future tells how one of America's leading corporations invented the technology for one of the fastest-growing products of recent times, then miscalculated and mishandled the opportunity to fully exploit it. It is a classic story of how innovation can fare within large corporate structures, the real-life odyssey of what can happen to an idea as it travels from inspiration to implementation.


язык: en

–убрика: Computer science/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1999

 оличество страниц: 276

ƒобавлена в каталог: 28.10.2010

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
914 Copier      27 Ч 28 37 45 137 155
9200 copier      186 Ч 189
9700 laser xerographic computer printer      195 Ч 197
Advanced Research Projects Administration      see ARPA ARPAnet
Advanced Systems Division      210 Ч 214 232 244
Advertising      13 Ч 14 17
Allair 8800      233 Ч 234
Alto      14 Ч 15 113
Alto III      see Alto rejection
Alto, and Advanced Systems Division      210 Ч 214
Alto, and Computer Science Laboratory timesharing system      75 Ч 85
Alto, and establishment of PARC      53- 63
Alto, and Ethernet      97 Ч 98
Alto, and GoldmanТs effort to initiate market probe      209 Ч 210
Alto, and ЂDynabookї      84 Ч 85
Alto, and Ђmultitaskingї      92 Ч 93 151
Alto, application of at Ginn and Co.      105 Ч 106 109
Alto, building of      87 Ч 97
Alto, commercial for      18 Ч 19 20
Alto, cost problems of      90 Ч 92
Alto, decision against marketing of      19- 20
Alto, demonstration of at Xerox World Conference      201 Ч 203 205Ч
Alto, demonstration of for Jobs      241
Alto, personal computers and      211Ч 212 234
Alto, redesign of      113
Alto, rejection of      117 Ч 127
Alto, rejection of, and bias against computers      202
Alto, rejection of, and costs research      172 Ч 175
Alto, rejection of, and Goldman      153 Ч 163
Alto, rejection of, and Hughes group study      135 Ч 141
Alto, rejection of, and isolation of PARC      143 Ч 152
Alto, rejection of, and McCardell      132 Ч 135
Alto, rejection of, and Potter      165 Ч 171
Alto, rejection of, and problems with Scientific Data Systems      121 Ч 128 129
Alto, rejection of, and recession of 1975      120- 121
Alto, rejection of, and recommendation of Display Word Processing Task Force      173 Ч 175
Alto, rejection of, and reorganization of Scientific Data Systems      125 Ч 127 145 147
Alto, rejection of, and word processors      166 Ч 171
Alto, rejection of, and XeroxТs antitrust problems      117 Ч 120
Alto, software for      95 102
Alto, testing of      93 Ч 103 211 212 rejection PARC)
Alto-Ethernet-EARS-Bravo system      110 Ч 112
and competition in copier industry      182 Ч 186 190
Antitrust suits against Xerox      117 Ч 120
Apple Computer      13 14 16 19 211 234 237 241
ARC      see Augmentation Research Center
ARPA      57 59 60 66 72 107 144 243
ARPANET      60 73 96
Atlantic Monthly, The      106 107
Augmentation Research Center      107 Ч 109
Babbage, Charles      66
Batch processing      57 58 61 107
Baudelaire, Patrick      75 Ч 76 210 212 213 241 257
Becker, Horace      157 183 197 199
Berkeley Computer Corporation      68 70 73
Bock, Richard      207 Ч 208
Boggs, David      97 257
Brand, Stewart      148 Ч 149
Bravo word processing program      102 103 110 113
Bush, Vannevar      106 Ч 107
Business Development Group      125
Business Planning Group      161
Business Week      117
Carlson, Chester      34 Ч 36 39 203
Carter, Jimmy      190
Carter, Shelby      211 212
Charlap, Paul      184
Clark, Larry      93
Commercial Investment Trust      29- 30
Computer Science Laboratory      61 109 144 243
Computer Science Laboratory, and Alto use      95
Computer Science Laboratory, and development of timesharing system      75 Ч 85
Computer Science Laboratory, and Ethernet      97
Computer Science Laboratory, and switching techђnology      82 Ч 83
Computer Science Laboratory, and Taylor      63 72 253
Computer Science Laboratory, and ЂDynabookї      86
Computer Science Laboratory, conflicts in      251 Ч 253
Computer Science Laboratory, hiring at      75 Ч 76
Computer Science Laboratory, organizational structure at      75 Ч 77 77
Computer Science Laboratory, reorganization      249 Ч 250
Computer science, and Babbage      66
Computer science, and bit mapping      88 Ч 89
Computer science, and Bush      106 Ч 107
Computer science, and development of computers      41 Ч 42
Computer science, and Engelbart      87 Ч 88 107
Computer science, and Ethernet      97 Ч 98
Computer science, and networking      95- 98
Computer science, and switching technology      83
Computer science, and timesharing      59
Computer science, and Ђinteractivityї concept      57 Ч 59
Computer science, in 1970s      15 Ч 16
Computer science, in late 1960s      24
Computer science, xerography and      33 (see also Personal computers)
Culbertson, Dave      212 213
Currie, F. Rigdon      127
Dessauer, John      36 40 43
Deutsch, Peter      148
Digital Equipment Corporation      47 122
Display Word Processing Task Force      172 173 206 230
Dolphin      231
Dorado word processor      242
Ears      101 Ч 102 103800
EARS 2068200 Copier      218
EARS 850 Word Processor      174 Ч 175
EARS word processing typewriter      169 Ч 171
Electro-Optical Systems      154 165
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator      see ENIAC
Electronic spreadsheets      234 Ч 235
Elkind, Jerry      172 173 257
Elkind, Jerry, and Advanced Systems Division      210 Ч 214
Elkind, Jerry, and conflicts with Taylor      243 Ч 245
Elkind, Jerry, and PARC      72 Ч 74
Elkind, Jerry, and Star project      232
Elkind, Jerry, ElIenby and      205 212
Ellenby, John      113 172 176 241 242 257
Ellenby, John, and Advanced Systems Division      210 Ч 214
Ellenby, John, and Alto III rejection      206 212
Ellenby, John, and Apple computers      211 Ч 212
Ellenby, John, and ЂFutures Dayї      205 Ч 214
Ellenby, John, background of      205
Engelbart, Douglas C.      87 Ч 88 107Ч 169
English, Bill      105 107
ENIAC      41 42 46
Ethernet laser printer      97 Ч 98 108 112 172 175 254
Flex      66 Ч 67 84
Ford Motor Company      38 40 42 53 54 132 153 156
Fortune      242 253
Fuji-Xerox of Japan      119 Ч 120 222
Gcschke, Chuck      207 209 241 257
Ginn and Company      105 Ч 106 109- 149 173
Goldman, Jack      40 136 170 172 175 176 197 229 247 248 257
Goldman, Jack, and conflict with OТNeill and Sparacino      158 Ч 159 160 215Ч
Goldman, Jack, and efforts to market Alto      209 Ч 210
Goldman, Jack, and Livermore plan      196
Goldman, Jack, and McCardellТs resignation      190 Ч 191
Goldman, Jack, and PARC      53 Ч 56 74
Goldman, Jack, and PARCs commercial opportunities      153 Ч 163 173
Goldman, Jack, and XeroxТs acquisition of Scientific Data Systems      42 Ч 43 45
Goldman, Jack, career at Xerox of      40 Ч 41
Goldman, Jack, goals of      33 Ч 34 144
Goldman, Jack, on inventions      34 35
Goldman, Jack, on peer rejection at Xerox      160 Ч 161
Goldman, Jack, resignation of      215 Ч 217
Gunning, Bill      61 70 71 74 105 149 257
Gypsy program      111 Ч 112 173
Hall, Harold      249
Haloid Company      24 25 36 38 119
Hartnett, John      15
Hay, Ray      125 134
Herbert, Evan      95
Hoff, Ted      83 Ч 64
Hughes, Michael      150 160 221 257
Hughes, Michael, and committee on XeroxТs strategy      135 Ч 141
Hughes, Michael, and ЂFutures Dayї      208 209
IBM      165 188
IBM PC      13 Ч 14 16 237
IBM, -compatible peripherals      47
IBM, and personal computer industry      14 19
IBM, and Scientific Data Systems      46 122Ч
IBM, antitrust suits and      45 47 120
IBM, competition between Xerox and      24 27 47- 117 124 182 184 196 197 229
IBM, Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter introduced by      165 Ч 166
IBM, Xerox executives from      193
IBM, ЂCharlie Chaplinї ads of      13 Ч 14 16
Information Technology Group      125 126 127 154 156 210
Interactivity      57 Ч 63 87 107 242
Janus project      230 Ч 231 (see also Star computer office system)
Japanese competition      198 Ч 199 221
Jobs tour of      241
Jobs, Steven      14 17. 242
Kay, Alan      93 246 257
Kay, Alan, and Systems Science Laboratory      71 173 241
Kay, Alan, and Taylor      65 78-
Kay, Alan, and ЂDynabookї,      84 Ч 85
Kay, Alan, background of      66 Ч 67
Kay, Alan, joins PARC      70
Kay, Alan, on scientists at PARC      76
Kay, Alan, Rolling Stone article on      148- 149
Kearns, David      203 257
Kearns, David, and Elkind-Ellenby conflict      212 Ч 214 215
Kearns, David, and Massaro resignation      240
Kearns, David, and OТNeill Ч Goldman conflict      215- 216
Kearns, David, and Pake      248 Ч 249
Kearns, David, and plans for Xerox World Conference of 1977      194 Ч 195
Kearns, David, and reorganization of Xerox      222 Ч 224
Kearns, David, and stagnation of Xerox after 1977      219 Ч 224
Kearns, David, and Taylor      253
Kearns, David, career      193
Kearns, David, chosen as Xerox president      191 193
Kearns, David, management concept of      199 Ч 200
Kearns, David, Massaro and      227 228
Kearns, David, speech at Xerox World Conference of      199 Ч 200
Kilby, Jack      83
Kodak      188
Kodak, competition with Xerox      182 Ч 183 184 197 215
Kodak, development of copying machine at      45
Lampson, Butler      73 84 97 110 144 158 173 196 242 246 SLOT)
Lampson, Butler, 9700      195 - 197
Lampson, Butler, and building of Alto      81 Ч 83 87
Lampson, Butler, and Computer Science Laboratory      72 76 245
Lampson, Butler, and IBM      196
Lampson, Butler, and rejection of Alto III      174 Ч 175
Lampson, Butler, and Star project      231 Ч 232
Lampson, Butler, background of      67 Ч 68
Lampson, Butler, first      14
Lampson, Butler, joins PARC staff      68 Ч 70
Lampson, Butler, Laser printer, ЂDoversї      206
Lampson, Butler, on document compiler      102 Ч 103
Lampson, Butler, on Ethernet      97
Lampson, Butler, on Taylor      77
Lampson, Butler, OТNeill Ч Goldman conflict over      158 Ч 159
Lampson, Butler, PARC invention of      98 Ч 102
Lampson, Butler, resignation of      254
Lampson, Butler, Xerox      19
Lewis, Jack      172 196
Lickiider, J.C.R.      57 58 81 95 107
Liddle and      229
Liddle, David      257
Liddle, David, and development of Star computer office system      229 Ч 233 238
Liddle, David, and Janus project      230 Ч 231
Liddle, David, background of      228
Liddle, David, Massaro and      228 Ч 229
Liddle, David, resignation of      241
Lyons, Jim      136 150
Macintosh      241 Ч 242
Magnetic Tape Selectric Typeђwriter      165 Ч 166
Marshall, Frank      194 Ч 195 199
Massaro, Don      227 Ч 229 232 233 237 240 241
McCardell, Archie      158 159 161 162. 221 227 257
McCardell, Archie, and competition in copier industry      186 190
McCardell, Archie, and Hughes group study      136 Ч 141 143
McCardell, Archie, and OТneill Ч Goldman conflict      160
McCardell, Archie, and product development      153- 154 165 169
McCardell, Archie, and Xerox World Conference      194
McCardell, Archie, as Xerox president      129 132
McCardell, Archie, background of      132 Ч 133
McCardell, Archie, leaves Xerox      190 Ч 191 193 194
McColough, Peter      36 113 161 252
McColough, Peter, and 914 Copier      17 Ч 18
McColough, Peter, and acquisition of Commercial Investment Trust      29 Ч 30
McColough, Peter, and antitrust suits against Xerox      118 Ч 121 132
McColough, Peter, and diversification of Xerox      45 Ч 46
McColough, Peter, and Hughes group study      136 Ч 141
McColough, Peter, and Odyssey      125 Ч 126
McColough, Peter, and OТneill Ч Gold man conflict      160
McColough, Peter, and PARC      56 149
McColough, Peter, and reorganization of Xerox      26 Ч 29 34
McColough, Peter, and Scientific Data Systems      30 Ч 31 117 121 125 181 184
McColough, Peter, and WilsonТs death      129 Ч 130
McColough, Peter, and Xerox World Conference      181 197 201 203 206 208 209
McColough, Peter, background of      24 Ч 31
McColough, Peter, goals of      23 Ч 24. 31 46 48 53 55 150
McColough, Peter, Goldman and      53 Ч 34 40 42 45 153 216
McColough, Peter, hiring program of      193
McColough, Peter, Kearns and      191 220
McColough, Peter, management errors of      203
McColough, Peter, McCarddl and      133 134 135
McColough, Peter, political activities of      131 Ч 132
McColough, Peter, retirement of      257 Ч 258
McColough, Peter, social policies of      130 Ч 131
McColough, Peter, speech to New York Society of Security Analysts of      48 Ч 50
McColough, Peter, TaylorТs goals and      246 Ч 247
McCreight, Ed      93 147 243 245 258
McKee, Donald      127
McNamara, Robert      133
Memex      106 Ч 107
Memorywriter      240
Metcalfe, Robert      97 113 241
Miller, Eddie      219 220 223
Minicomputers      47
MitchcU, Jim      73 75 80 168 238 244 246 253 258
Model A Copier      25 37 177
Modex      110 Ч 111
Moore, Gordon      83
Mott, Tim      105 Ч 106 212 213 241 258
Mott, Tim, and Advanced Systems Division      211
Mott, Tim, and Ginn and Company project      110 Ч 112
Mott, Tim, and Gypsy word processing program      112
Mott, Tim, background of      105 Ч 106
Mott, Tim, on development of Star      232
Mott, Tim, on preparations for ЂFutures Dayї      207
Mott, Tim, on XeroxТs relationship with PARC      149
MTST      see Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter
National Aeronautics and Space Administration      57 107
National Office Machine Dealers Association      184 Ч 185
New York Society of Security Analysts      48 Ч 50
Newton, Darwin      105 Ч 106 109 149
Norris, William      122
Noyce, Robert      88
Odyssey      126
Office information systems task force      230 Ч 231
Office Products Division      227 Ч 229
Office Systems Division      161 Ч 163 206
Ornstein, Severe      243 244 246
OТNeill, Jim      159 161 162 167 221 258
OТNeill, Jim, and Alio      173 210
OТNeill, Jim, and competition in copier industry      183 197
OТNeill, Jim, and conflict with Goldman      158 Ч 159 160 215- 248
OТNeill, Jim, and PARCТs commercial opportunities      154 Ч 155 156 165 169
OТNeill, Jim, and Systems Development Division      229 Ч 230
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