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Aczel A.D. — God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe
Aczel A.D. — God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe

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Название: God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe

Автор: Aczel A.D.

Аннотация:

Who would have thought a mathematical constant would make such an engaging character? God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe, mathematician Amir Aczel's tale of the search for a scientific explanation of the universe, features the cosmological constant in a role as complex as Einstein's. The great genius referred to it as his "greatest blunder," but recent events in the world of astrophysics have brought the prodigal term back into the fold as an important part of his field equation. Aczel is a powerful storyteller, and makes no secret of his admiration for Einstein; much of the book revolves around his conquest of general relativity. Integrating relativity with gravitation was no easy task (even for Einstein), but the author deftly steers the reader away from the sticky stuff and focuses attention on concepts of importance.
Aczel shows Einstein's aesthetic troubles with the cosmological constant, which preceded theoretical and experimental problems leading to its abandonment. The universe was caught in the act of expansion by Edwin Hubble, and the constant, originally invoked to maintain a steady-state universe, was unnecessary. Fortunately, though, the mathematics underlying the constant had become important tools for physicists; observations in 1997 and 1998 by Saul Perlmutter, Neta Bahcall, and others showed that the universe will continue expanding indefinitely and sent theorists back to the drawing board to revise their equations. The cosmological constant returned triumphant, and while its inventor might never have approved of it, today's scientific community gives it an honored role in God's Equation.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: reprinted edition

Год издания: 2000

Количество страниц: 236

Добавлена в каталог: 28.03.2010

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Предметный указатель
Abraham, Max      111-12
Adelhard of Bath      48
Albrecht, Andy      199
Alpher, Ralph      176
Alvarez, Louis      217
Alvarez, Walter      217
Andromeda      154 163
Arab science      47-48
Aristotle      206
Asteroids      215
Astral geometry      58
Babylonians      43-44
Bahcall, John      200-201
Bahcall, Neta, n      199-202
Beltarmi, Eugenio      101
Berlin      66-68 80-81 105-8 119-20 125
Berlin Observatory      36-37 68
Besso, Michele Angelo      17 24 28 83
Bianchi identities      113-14
Bianchi, Luigi      110 114
big bang      168 171-72 217-18
Big bang, evidence for      176-78
Big bang, instanton concept      211 213
Big bang, problems with standard big bang, theory      173-75
Big bang, spacetime singularity      168 169-71 213 218
Black holes      4 119 168-69
Bolyai, Johann      56-59 101
Bolyai, Wolfgang      56 58
Brazil, eclipse expedition in      126-29 133-34 135 142-44
Broken symmetries      208-9
Cepheid variables      161-62 163
Chandrasekhar, S.      122 146
Chemical elements in universe      177-78
Chern, S. S.      99-100 219
Clark, Ronald      82
Corry, L.      114
Cosmic Background Explorer satellite (COBE)      177
Cosmic background radiation      175 176-77
Cosmological constant, as measurement of force expanding universe      180 204-6
Cosmological constant, as variable      205 209
Cosmological constant, challenges to      15 8-60
Cosmological constant, Einstein's abandonment of      160 164-65 168
Cosmological constant, Einstein's introduction of      155-58 167-68 206
Cosmological constant, relationship to curvature of universe      156-57
Cosmological constant, relationship to expansion of universe      194-95 208 217
Cosmological constant, relationship to inflationary universe theory      175 205 209
Cosmological constant, usefulness      167-68 204-5 207 217
Cosmology      see also Universe
Cosmology, Einstein on      149 151-59
Cosmology, flatness problem      173
Cosmology, horizon problem      173-75
Cosmology, quantum      198
Cosmology, search for unified field theory      210-11
Cottingham      134 138
Cowan, Clyde      182
Crab Nebula (Ml)      2-3
Crimean eclipse expedition      71 79 81-84 85 87
Critical density of universe      173 187 191-95
Crommelin, A. C. D.      126 127 143
Curvature      see also Light deflection
Curvature of finite universe      156-57
Curvature of flat Euclidean space      94
Curvature of hyperbolic space      94 101
Curvature of spacetime      59 65 94 96 118 143-44
Curvature of spherical space      94
Curvature tensor      113-14
Daly, Ruth, n      199
Dark matter      186 202
de Sitter, Willem      121 122-23 140-41 154 158 60 165
Demetz, Peter      31
Dicke, Robert H.      176
Differential      191 (see also Field equation of gravitation)
Differential equations      191
Differential geometry      97 99-100
Dinosaurs      215
Distances, in non-Euclidean geometries      95-97 100 117
Dyson, Frank      124 125 138 142-43
Earth, believed to be flat      43-44 50-51
Eclipses, attempts to observe bending of starlight      76-77 78-79 124-25 147-48
Eclipses, Brazilian expedition      126-133-34 135 137 142-44
Eclipses, Crimean expedition      71 79 81-84 85 87
Eclipses, Principe expedition      124 126-27 129-34 135-37 142-44
Eddington, Arthur      90 121-24 125 141
Eddington, Arthur, on curvature of space and general relativity      132-33 44 145 146 148
Eddington, Arthur, poetry      146-47
Eddington, Arthur, Principe expedition      126-27 129-34 135-37 138
Eddington, Arthur, research on expanding universe      165
Effects of gravity      27-28 59
Effects of gravity, explanation for lack of ether      24-25
Effects of gravity, influences      19-21
Effects of gravity, mathematics related to      18 32-33 63
Effects of gravity, redshift      32
Effects of gravity, reference frames      21
Ehrenfest, Paul      68 87
Einstein, Albert, as celebrity      142 147
Einstein, Albert, at German University (Prague)      29-31 33-34 38-39 40
Einstein, Albert, awareness of anti-Semitism      67 107-8
Einstein, Albert, correspondence with Einstein, Albert, Freundlich      68 73-79 88 89-90 112 147-48
Einstein, Albert, family      14 15-16 19 66 80
Einstein, Albert, in Berlin      66-68 80-81 82 105-8 119-20 125
Einstein, Albert, in Zurich      62 65-66
Einstein, Albert, Jewishness      30-31
Einstein, Albert, knowledge of astronomy      76-77
Einstein, Albert, knowledge of British confirmation of light deflection      139-40 141-42
Einstein, Albert, life      14-19 39
Einstein, Albert, marriages      17 19 80 107
Einstein, Albert, mathematical knowledge      17-18 61-63
Einstein, Albert, personality      15 40 76 108-9 112 115
Einstein, Albert, reputation      119
Einstein, Albert, research and papers Einstein, Albert, published      21 29 38-39 40 119-20
Einstein, Albert, search for unified field Einstein, Albert, theory      100 160 211 219
Einstein, Albert, work at Swiss patent office      19 21 28 59 62
Einstein, Albert, Zurich Notebook      3 7 116-17
Einstein, Elsa      80 107
Einstein, Mileva      17 66 105
Electromagnetism      160
Equations      64-65
Escher, M. C      53 54 55
ETH      see Federal Institute of Technology
Ether      20-21 22-24 145
Euclidean geometry      44-45
Euclidean geometry, fifth postulate      45-51 54-58
Euclidean geometry, of universe      173 186-87 191-92 194 212 217
Expansion of universe      see also Big bang; Inflationary universe theory
Expansion of universe, "funny energy" as force in      10-11 180 204-6
Expansion of universe, beginning of      168 171
Expansion of universe, closed theory (collapse predicted)      6-7
Expansion of universe, cosmological constant dropped because of      160 164-65 168
Expansion of universe, critical density and      173 187 191-95 216-17
Expansion of universe, de Sitter on      159-60
Expansion of universe, description      178-80
Expansion of universe, distribution of matter      186
Expansion of universe, Einstein's initial doubts about      153-54
Expansion of universe, evidence for      160-61
Expansion of universe, evidence for acceleration of      7-10 11 199 204-5 216-17
Expansion of universe, Hubble's Constant      164 191-92
Expansion of universe, Hubble's Law      5 164 178
Expansion of universe, models of      165 212
Expansion of universe, steady state theory      6
Expansion of universe, theories      6-7 10
Expansion of universe, varying rates of      208 209
Extended inflation model      198
F$\ddot{o}$lsing, Albrecht      24
Fan, Xiaohui      11
Federal Institute of Technology (ETH; Zurich)      16 17-18 38 40 61-62 63 66
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)      11 198-99 203-4
Fermi, Enrico      182
Feynman, Richard      212
Field equation of gravitation      see also Cosmological constant
Field equation of gravitation, application to universe      151-52 156-57
Field equation of gravitation, as icon      205-6
Field equation of gravitation, components      114-15 117 151-52
Field equation of gravitation, development of      68 75 113-15
Field equation of gravitation, early approximation of      116-17
Field equation of gravitation, geometry of universe and      190-99
Field equation of gravitation, metric tensor      65 96 152 155
Field equation of gravitation, power of      13-14 218-19
Field equation of gravitation, publication of      117
Field equation of gravitation, solutions      117-19 205
Fields      20-21 (see also Gravitational field)
Fokker, A.      109
Foucault's pendulum      150
Four-dimensional spacetime      32-33 190
Fractals      185
Frank, Philipp      38 40
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke      84-85
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay      36-37
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, astronomical research      77-78
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, correspondence with Einstein      68 73-79 88 89-90 112 147-48
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, Crimean eclipse expedition      71 79 81-84 85 87
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, in career      89-90
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, relationship with Einstein      71-79 82 87-88 89-90 147-48
Freundlich, Erwin Finlay, research on light deflection      74 78-79 147-48
Friedmann, Alexander      165 168
Frieman, Joshua      199
Functions, derivatives      170
Galaxies, dark matter in      202
Galaxies, discovery of      154 163-64
Galaxies, distribution in universe      184-86
Galaxies, formation of      171-72 177
Galaxies, measuring distances to      4-5 162 163
Galaxies, most distant      173-74
Galaxies, redshifts      5
Galaxies, speed of recession      4-5 7-10 160-61 164 178 179
Galaxies, structures      184-86
Galileo Galilei      19 21
Gamow, George      176
Gauss, Karl Friedrich      54-56 58 92 93 94 102
Geller, Margaret      185
General theory of relativity      see also Field equation of gravitation; Light deflection
General theory of relativity, application to entire general theory of relativity, universe      152-54
General theory of relativity, development      28 31-32 33-38 39 64 107 115-17
General theory of relativity, difficulty of understanding      145-46
General theory of relativity, dissemination of Einstein's general theory of relativity, paper      121 122
General theory of relativity, Eddington on      132-33 145
General theory of relativity, Einstein's desire for experimental confirmation      68 73-79 82-83 119
General theory of relativity, later work based on      99-100 112-13 114-15 141
General theory of relativity, mathematics of      33-34 62-65 68 96 109-11 112-14
General theory of relativity, meetings on      140 142-47
General theory of relativity, perihelion of Mercury and      83-84 109 111 145
General theory of relativity, power of      218-19
General theory of relativity, reactions to      82 111-12 144-45
General theory of relativity, reference frames      3 2
Geometry      see also Euclidean geometry; non - Euclidean geometry
Geometry of universe, application of Einstein's geometry of universe, field equation to      190-99
Geometry of universe, curvature      156-57
Geometry of universe, flat (Euclidean)      173 186-87 189 191-92 212 217
Geometry of universe, hyperbolic (non-Euclidean)      192 193 218
Geometry of universe, non - Euclidean      100-102
Geometry of universe, possibilities      189-95
Geometry of universe, relationship to cosmological constant      156-57 193 194-95
Geometry of universe, spherical (non-Euclidean)      192-93
Geometry, differential      97 99-100
Geometry, four-dimensional      210
Geometry, in ancient times      43-44
German University (Prague)      29-31 33-34 38-39 40
Germany      see also Berlin gravitation attempts
Germany, World War I      85-87
Gravitation      see also Field equation of gravitation
Gravitation, effects on galaxies      186
Gravitation, Einstein's study of      28 64 112 117-18
Gravitation, expansion of universe driven by      175
Gravitation, in special theory of relativity      27-28
Gravitation, light bent by      see Light deflection
Gravitation, Newton's theory      27-28
Gravitation, redshift caused by      32 39
Gravitation, theory      100 160 212-13 219
Gravitational field, limiting value of      151
Gravitational field, space curved due to      11 59 96
Gravitational lensing      37-38 202
Grossmann, Marcel      61-62 63
Grossmann, Marcel, collaboration with Einstein      64 65 69 75
Grossmann, Marcel, criticism of general theory of relativity      68-69
Grossmann, Marcel, relationship with Einstein      19 62 68-69
Group theory      98-99
Guerra, Erick      11
Guth, Alan      159 172-73 175-76 197 2 09 212 213 218
Haber, Fritz      72
Hartle, James      212
Hawking, Stephen      210 211-13
Herman, Robert      176
Herz, Heinrich      21
Higgs fields      175-76
Hilbert, David      112-13 114-15
Hitler, Adolf      81
Horizon problem      173-75
Hoyle, Fred      168
Hu, Esther      173-74 179
Hubble Space Telescope      201 216
Hubble's constant      164 191-92
Hubble's Law      5 164 178
Hubble, Edwin      5 161 162-63
Huchra, John      185
Humason, Milton      163
Hyades      134
Hyperbolic geometry      52-54 57-59 100-101
Hyperbolic geometry, curvature of space      94 101
Hyperbolic geometry, of universe      190 192 193 218
Ield equation of gravitation, Nordstrom's work on      75
IN      41 158 159
Inflationary universe theory      159 172-73 175-76 205 213
Inflationary universe theory, cosmological constant and      175 205 209
Inflationary universe theory, evidence for      177 217
Inflationary universe theory, extended model      198
Inflationary universe theory, flat geometry of universe inflationary universe theory, assumed      186-87 212
Inflationary universe theory, rate of expansion      197-98 211
Inflationary universe theory, skeptics      218 (see also Big bang)
Instanton concept      211 213
Kami oka Neutrino Observatory      183-84
Keck telescopes      173 216
Kirshner, Robert      203
Klein bottles      98
Klein, Felix      98-99
Krupp, Gustav      81
Lapparent, Valerie de      185
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory      1-2 216
Leavitt, Henrietta      161-62 163
LeMaitre, Georges      165 168
Levi - Civita, Tullio      34 63 110
Light deflection by massive objects      34-38 39-40
Light, gravitational lensing      37-38 202
Light, particle theory      36 89
Light, speed of      21
Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich      58-59 101
Lodge, Oliver      144-45
Lorentz, H. A.      21 140-42 158
M$\ddot{o}$bius strips      98
M$\ddot{o}$bius, A. E      98
Mach's law of inertia      149-50
Mach, Ernst      19-20 34 149 158-59
Magellanic Clouds      161 163 184
Magnetic field      20
Magnetic monopoles      175-76
Mandelbrot, Benoit      185
Mandl, Rudi W.      37-38
Mass of universe, average density      157-58
Mass of universe, critical density      173 191-95
Mass of universe, less than critical density      11 183 187 199 216-17
Mass of universe, measuring      201-2
Mass of universe, missing      184-87
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