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Dugdale J.S. Ч Entropy and its Physical Meaning
Dugdale J.S. Ч Entropy and its Physical Meaning

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Ќазвание: Entropy and its Physical Meaning

јвтор: Dugdale J.S.

јннотаци€:

This text presents a comprehensive approach to entropy, recognizing that it is a concept often misunderstood. Beginning with an historical classical viewpoint, a statistical view then follows to give a more physical picture.


язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/“ермодинамика, статистическа€ физика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1996

 оличество страниц: 193

ƒобавлена в каталог: 20.08.2005

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
$He^3$ liquid      149Ч151 156Ч158 170
$He^3$ liquid, entropy      156Ч158
$He^3$ liquid, superfluid phases      150Ч151
$He^3$ melting curve      150 156Ч158
$He^3$ solid      156Ч158
$He^3$ solid, entropy      156Ч158
$He^3$-$He^4$ dilution refrigerator      170Ч171
$He^3$-$He^4$ mixtures, liquid      162 170Ч171
$He^3$-$He^4$ mixtures, solid      162
$He^4$ liquid      151Ч152 156Ч157
$He^4$ liquid, entropy      156Ч157 170 190
$He^4$ liquid, heat capacity and $\lambda$-point      151Ч152
$He^4$ liquid, superfluidity      151 169
$He^4$ melting curve      156Ч157
$He^4$ solid      156
Absolute temperature scale      35Ч36
Absolute zero      145Ч164 177Ч179
Adiabatic demagnetisation      171Ч174
Adiabatic irreversible process      59Ч62
Adiabatic reversible process      12Ч13 177
Alloys      153Ч154
Assemblies that share energy      93Ч95
assembly      70
Atomic description of large-scale system      67Ч70
Atomic hydrogen      133
Black, Joseph      3Ч5
Blackbody (cavity) radiation      165Ч166
Boltzmann      67Ч68 70 76Ч77 79 118 124 141
Boltzmann distribution of energy      84Ч88
Boltzmann factor      87
Boltzmann's constant      86 98Ч99 125
Born, M.      12 21
Bose Ч Einstein condensation      131Ч133
Bose Ч Einstein distribution      118 129Ч131
Bose Ч Einstein gas      131Ч134 152
Bose Ч Einstein statistics      129 152
Bose Ч Einstein, energy of      135
Bose Ч Einstein, entropy of      136
Bose Ч Einstein, heat capacity of      137
Brownian movement      140
Caloric      5 32
Calorimetric entropy      160Ч162
Calorimetry      5
Carnot cycle      30Ч32 39Ч40 44Ч45
Carnot engine as refrigerator      36 166 176 191
Carnot's theorem      32Ч35
Carnot, Lazare      34
Carnot, Sadi      27Ч32
Cavity (blackbody radiation)      165Ч167
Characteristic temperature      91 106Ч108 156
Chemical equilibrium and the third law      163
chemical potential      182
Chemical reactions      12 163
Clapeyron equation      48
Classical gas      115Ч125 128 134
Classical gas, energy of      135
Classical gas, entropy of      136
Classical gas, heat capacity of      137
Classical statistics      118 128
Classical statistics, range of application in gases      129Ч131
Claude      167
Clausius      33 42 62
Clausius statement of the second law      33
Clausius theorem      40
Clausius Ч Clapeyron equation      51Ч53 155Ч156
Collins helium liquefier      168
Conducting wall      12Ч13
Cooling by evaporation      168Ч170
Critical point (temperature)      47Ч48 52 149 169
Curie's law      155 162 174
Degeneracy, parameter      130Ч131
Degeneracy, quantum      105
Degeneracy, temperature      131
Degree, size of      13 36
Degree, size of, Kelvin      36
Dilution refrigerator      170Ч171
Disorder and entropy      101Ч102
Disorder and entropy, frozen-in      102 162Ч163
Distinguishable and indistinguishable particles      81 115
Distribution numbers      71Ч67
Distribution of velocities in a gas      68Ч69 123
Dulong Ч Petit law of heat capacities      108
Einstein solid      105Ч108
Energy distribution      68Ч69 71Ч72 76Ч78 82Ч87 128Ч129
Energy, equipartition of      124
Energy, forms of      69Ч70
Energy, states, levels      80Ч81 124
Energy, zero point      80 106 149
Enthalpy      50Ч51 54
Entropy , statistical interpretation      77Ч78 98Ч101 164 171Ч172
Entropy and disorder      101Ч102
Entropy and heat capacity      43Ч44 111Ч112
Entropy and heat flow      57Ч59
Entropy and latent heat      46Ч48
Entropy and probability      99 141
Entropy at low temperatures      145Ч164
Entropy constant of a gas      122
Entropy in irreversible processes      57Ч62
Entropy in statistical mechanics      95Ч100 159Ч160 169
Entropy measurement of      43Ч44 160Ч161
Entropy of alloys      153Ч154
Entropy of closed systems      62
Entropy of Einstein solid      106Ч107
Entropy of gas mixtures      122
Entropy of ideal gas      42 44 119Ч122 131 133 136
Entropy of magnetic solid      110Ч112 191
Entropy of melting      47 155Ч158
Entropy of mixtures      122 152Ч154
Entropy of perfect gas      42 44 119Ч122 131 133 136
Entropy of solid-like assembly      103Ч105
Entropy of vaporisation      46Ч47 159Ч160 190
Entropy, definition of      39Ч40
Entropy-temperature diagrams      44Ч45 47 107 136 157Ч158 169 171 178 190
Equation of state      14 49 125
Equipartition of energy      124
Extensive variables      15 118 122
External work method of liquefaction      167Ч168
Fahrenheit      3
Fermi Ч Dirac distribution (statistics)      127Ч130
Fermi Ч Dirac gas      131 133Ч135 149Ч150 156
Fermi Ч Dirac gas, entropy of      134 136
Fermi Ч Dirac gas, heat capacity of      134 137
Fermi Ч Dirac gas, internal energy of      134Ч135
First law of thermodynamics      19Ч24 33 48 163 177
Fluctuations      139Ч141
Fluctuations and the second law of thermodynamics      140Ч141
Free energy      50Ч53 104 106 124Ч125 148 156
Frozen-in disorder      102 162Ч163
Gas mixtures      122
Gas scale of temperature      13Ч14 35 165 173
Gas-like assemblies      81 115Ч137
Gases and the third law      159Ч162
Gases, liquefaction of      167Ч168
Gibbs free energy      50Ч53 182
Gibbs paradox      183
Glasses      43 162Ч163
heat capacity      3Ч4 6 23 43Ч44
Heat capacity near absolute zero      158Ч159
Heat capacity of Einstein solid      107Ч108
Heat capacity of gases      122 134 137 159
Heat capacity of magnetic solid      111Ч112
Heat capacity of two-level solid      89Ч91
Heat engines      27Ч35
Heat engines and thermodynamics      27Ч28
Heat exchanger      167
Heat switch      173
Heat, definition of      20Ч21
Heat, mechanical equivalent of      7Ч8
Heat, nature of      5Ч8 22
Helmholtz free energy      104 106 124Ч125
Hydrogen, atomic      133
Hydrogen, liquid      169
Insulating wall      12Ч13
Intensive variables      15
Internal energy (function)      11 19Ч24 70 156 163
Internal energy (function), atomic interpretation      22Ч23 70
Internal energy (function)of perfect gas      24 45 134Ч135
Inversion temperature      167
Irreversible processes      15Ч16 43 59Ч62
Irreversible processes, entropy changes in      59Ч62
Isotopic mixtures      152Ч153 162
Joule      7Ч8 24
Joule Ч Thomson effect      53Ч55 167Ч169
Joule's law      24
Kelvin (William Thomson)      33 35Ч36 140 177
Kelvin (William Thomson), absolute temperature scale      35Ч36
Kelvin (William Thomson), first temperature scale      35 42
Kelvin (William Thomson), statement of second law      33
Lambda point in liquid $He^4$      151Ч152 156Ч157 169
Latent heat      3 46Ч48 156 168
Lattice vibrations      108 159
Law of increase of entropy in closed systems      62
Linde      167
Linde method of liquefaction      167 176 191
Liquefaction of gases      167Ч168 176 191
Localised elements      81Ч82 118
Localised elements, assembly of      82Ч91
Low temperatures, measurement of      173Ч175
Low temperatures, production of      166Ч173
Magnetic method of cooling      167 171Ч174
Magnetic solid      109Ч112 155 173Ч176
Magnetic susceptibility and the third law      155
Maxwell      68 140
Maxwell Ч Boltzmann distribution of velocities      68Ч69 123
Maxwell's demon      140
Maxwell's thermodynamic relations      49Ч51
Mayer      7
Mechanical equivalent of heat      7Ч8
Melting curve at low temperatures      155Ч158
Microstate      72 80Ч81
Molecules with two energy levels, an assembly of      87Ч91
Molecules, energy levels of      80Ч81
Negative temperatures      113
Nernst      145
Nernst heat theorem      145 163
Noise in electrical circuits      140
Non-equilibrium states      99 162Ч163
Nonlocalised elements      81 118
Nuclear demagnetisation      172Ч173
Nuclear paramagnetism      172Ч173
Open systems      12 182
Order-disorder transition      171
Ordering at low temperatures      101Ч102 164
Paramagnetic salts      89 109 171Ч172
Paramagnetism, electronic      171Ч172
Paramagnetism, nuclear      172Ч173
Partition function      104Ч105 119Ч121 123 125
Pauli exclusion principle      118 127 149 152
phase diagram      52Ч53 149
Phase separation in liquids      153
Phase separation in solids      153
Planck      70 80 99Ч101 124 165
Planck's discussion of $S=k\lnW$      100Ч101
Probability, Thermodynamic      99
Quantum energy states      80Ч81 124
Quantum statistics      127Ч137
Quasi-static processes      14Ч15 32 96
Recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics      141
Reversible change, reversibility      15Ч16 32Ч33 43 58 96 146 166 171 177Ч178
Ruhemann, B.      145
Ruhemann, M.      145
Rumford, Count (Benjamin Thompson)      5Ч7
Sackur Ч Tetrode equation      121Ч122 134Ч135 160
Second law of thermodynamics      27Ч36 49 140Ч141 163 177
Simon      145 163Ч164 179
Simon liquefier      168 175
Solid Einstein model      105Ч108
Solid magnetic      109Ч112 135 171Ч174
Solid of molecules with two energy levels      87Ч91
Solid-like assembly      82Ч84 87Ч91
Stationary states      80Ч81
Statistical entropy      160Ч162
Statistical mechanics      68 77 93Ч102 141
Stirling's approximation      83
Superconductivity      147Ч149
Superconductor, heat capacity      148 159
Superfluidity in $He^3$      150Ч152
Superfluidity, $He^4$      133 151Ч152 169
Temperature      3 11Ч13 35Ч36 165Ч166 173Ч175
Temperature in statistical mechanics      93Ч99
Temperature, absolute      35Ч36 173Ч175
Temperature, definition      13
Temperature, scales      13Ч14
Temperatures, negative      113
Thermal equilibrium      3 13Ч15
Thermal expansion and the third law      154
Thermodynamic functions and appropriate variables      49Ч51
Thermodynamic, coordinates      11Ч12
Thermodynamic, equilibrium      12
Thermodynamics, characteristic variables      11Ч12
Thermodynamics, first law      19Ч24 33 48 163 177
Thermodynamics, second law      27Ч36 49 140Ч141 163 177
Thermodynamics, third law      102 106 110Ч111 122 145Ч164 177Ч179
Thermodynamics, zeroth law      3 13 49
Thermometer      3 13 175
Third law of thermodynamics      102 106 110Ч111 122 145Ч164 177Ч179
Third law of thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium      163
Third law of thermodynamics and unattainability of absolute zero      177Ч179
Thompson, Benjamin (Count Rumford)      5Ч7
Thomson W. (Lord Kelvin)      33 35Ч36 140 177
Triple point      47 52 149 168Ч169
Unattainability of absolute zero      177Ч179
Vapour pressure      168Ч170
Velocity distribution in a gas      68Ч69 123
Work in irreversible processes      15Ч16
Work in quasi-static processes      14Ч15
Work in statistical mechanics      96
Work of liquefaction      176 191
zero point energy      80 106 149
Zeroth law of thermodynamics      3 13 49
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