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Brekhovskikh L.M., Lysanov Y.P. — Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics
Brekhovskikh L.M., Lysanov Y.P. — Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics



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Название: Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics

Авторы: Brekhovskikh L.M., Lysanov Y.P.

Аннотация:

This book provides an up-to-date introduction to the theory of sound propagation in the ocean. The text treats both ray and wave propagation and pays considerable attention to stochastic problems such as the scattering of sound at rough surfaces and random inhomogeneities. An introductory chapter that discusses the basic experimental data complements the following theoretical chapters.

New material has been added throughout for this third edition and the list of references has been brought up to date and the latest experimental data have been included.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/Геофизика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: 3rd edition

Год издания: 2003

Количество страниц: 278

Добавлена в каталог: 29.07.2005

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
Absorption by air bubbles      253
Absorption in sea water      10
Absorption in sediments      28
Absorption, cross section of bubble      255
Acoustic pressure      36 47 61 80 101 129 167
Adiabatic approximation      151
Adiabatic approximation, conditions for validity      157
Adiabatic approximation, equation      251
Air bubble under sea surface      24
Air bubble under sea surface, resonant frequency of      24 252 254 261 263
Airy function      46 99 133 169
ambient noise      30
Angular distribution of sea wave energy      22 193
Anomaly of sound intensity      121 122
Antiwaveguide      9 169
Antiwaveguide, symmetric      172 179
Approximation of Kirchhoff (tangent plane)      201
Approximation of small slope      221
Approximation of Wentzel — Kramers — Brillouin      79 137
Approximation, adiabatic      151 157
Attenuation coefficient by bubbles      257
Attenuation coefficient in water      10
Attenuation coefficient of normal modes      171
Attenuation coefficient of quasi-modes      178
Attenuation coefficient, along ray      216
Averaged decay law      113
Averaged decay law for coherent field      216
Axial ray      125 245
Biological noise      31
Bragg’slaw      186 189
Brunt — Vaisala frequency      243
Caustic      46 86 97
Caustic, equation of      97
Characteristic function (rough surface)      204 206
Coherence parameter      22
Coherent reflection coefficient      22 199 204
Collective bubble behavior      262
Convergence zone      4 125
Coriolis parameter      244
Correlation function for amplitude fluctuation      233
Correlation function for Cartesian (quadratic) components of sound field      247
Correlation function for phase fluctuation      228
Correlation function for refractive index fluctuations      228 238
Correlation function, spatial, for rough surface      187
Correlation function, spatial, for scattered field      189
Correlation function, temporal, for scattered field      196
Critical (cutoff) frequency      106 112
Cross section for absorption      256
Cross section for extinction      255
Cross section for scattering      252 255
Currents      12
Currents, effect on sound propagation      19
Cutoff (critical) frequency      106 112
Damping parameters      255
Decay law, averaged      113
Decay law, for a coherent field      217
Diffraction rays      171
Dipole effect      83 108
dispersion      257
Dispersion in bubbly water      258
Dispersion relation for internal waves      244
Dispersion relation for normal waves      105 111 129 131 134 138 152 170 175
Dispersion relation for surface waves      192
Dispersion, waveguide (geometric)      107
Displacement of frequency      198 211
Displacement of ray at reflection      91 95
Distribution of bubble radii      25
Distribution of sea surface displacement      20 205
Distribution of sea surface slopes      20 207 213
Eddies, synoptic      13
Eikonal      47
Eikonal, equation of      47 228
Excitation function of modes      108 129
Extinction cross section of bubble      255
Far zone for scattered field      187 209 237
Fine structure of water      17
Fluctuations in multipath propagation      247
Fluctuations of amplitude level      231
Fluctuations of arrival angle of ray      231
Fluctuations of phase      228 247
Focusing factor      45 96
Focusing factor in convergence zone      128
Focusing factor, near caustic      46
Fore-reverberation      218
Fraunhofer zone      82
Frequency spectrum of rough sea surface      21 193
Frequency spectrum of scattered sound field      24 196 198 210
Frontal zone      12
Garrett — Munk spectrum      244
Green’s formula      202
Green’s function      235
Group velocity      107 135
Half-wave layer      71
Helmholtz equation      37 47 80 101 128 150 185 234
Hydrostatic pressure, effect on resonant frequency of air bubble      251 254
Hydrostatic pressure, effect on sound attenuation      10
Hydrostatic pressure, effect on sound velocity      1
Images sources      81 101
Images sources and normal modes      109
Impedance for solid halfspace      75
Impedance, input      70
Impedance, of layer      71
Inertial frequency      244
Inhomogeneities, anisotropic      239
Inhomogeneities, effect of transmission      228
Inhomogeneities, isotropic      238
Integral representation of field in layer      103
Integral representation of field in underwater sound channel      130
Integral scale of inhomogeneities      230
Intensity, acoustic      43
Intensity, anomaly of      126 128
Intensity, average, of scattered field      186 188 206 235
Intensity, relation between incident and transmission waves      62
Interference, constructive      141
Interference, of modes in waveguide      108 143
Interference, pattern      81 143
Interference, pattern invariant      146
Internal waves      15
Internal waves, effect on sound propagation      242
Internal waves, spectrum of      243
Intrathermocline lenses, effect on sound field      33
Kirchhoff approximation      201
Kolmogorov — Obukhov law      19 238
Lambert’s law      29
Lame parameters      72
Layers, deep scattering      26
Layers, for ray tracing      42
Layers, half wave      71
Layers, in microstructure      17
Layers, reflection at      71
Leakages      8
Length of ray cycle      108 114 120 124
Long-range sound propagation      4 118
Method, of parabolic equation      163
Method, ray-mode      142
Method, reference waveguide      150
Method, small perturbation      184 234
Method, small slope      221
Method, stationary phase      89
Method, tangent plane      201
noise, ambient      30
Noise, biological      31
Normal modes, coupled      159
Normal modes, in almost-stratified medium      149
Normal modes, in the ocean with perfectly rigid bottom      105
Normal modes, in two-layered liquid      110
Normal modes, in underwater sound channel      128
Normal modes, transformation of integral representation into      131
Ocean acoustic tomography      52
Ocean bottom      28
Ocean bottom, scattering at      30 192
Ocean bottom, two-scale model of      212
Parabolic equation      164
Parabolic equation, method of      163
Pattern function      44
Phase integral      138 152
Phase velocity of normal modes      107 135
Pierson — Moscovitz spectrum      193
Pierson — Neumann spectrum      193
Plane wave      38 61 74 86 103 185 203
Potential of velocity      37
Potential, scalar      37 73
Potential, vector      73
Power flux      66 84
Power of radiation      84
Propagation, across cyclonic ring      14
Propagation, across Gulf Stream      13
Propagation, antiwaveguide      9 169 172 179
Propagation, in coastal wedge      154 161
Propagation, in shallow water      9 101
Propagation, long-range      4 118
Propagation, multipath      4 120
Propagation, waveguide      3 118
Quadratic (Cartesian) components      15 247
Quasi-modes      172 178
Radiation power      84
Ray theory      35
Ray theory, condition for validity      91
Ray, axial      124 246
Ray, curvature      40 245
Ray, diagram      3 4 5—10 116 120 124 155 162 172 178 179
Ray, distance, travel time      41
Ray, equation of      41 48 120 140 142
Ray, for range-dependent ocean      148
Ray, in horizontal plane      161
Ray, invariant      146 148
Ray, refraction of      38
Rayleigh law      238 253
Rayleigh parameter      23 183 200 205 216
Rayleigh wave      76
Reference waveguide method      150
Reflection coefficient, at liquid-liquid interface      61
Reflection coefficient, at liquid-solid interface      75
Reflection coefficient, coherent      23 200 205
Reflection coefficient, for multiple layers      71
Reflection coefficient, for plane wave      61 174
Reflection coefficient, for rough sea surface      200 205
Refraction of rays      38
Refraction, three-dimensional      47
Relaxation frequency      9
Relaxation frequency, dependence on temperature      9
Resonant frequency for air bubble      25 252 254
Resonant frequency for swim bladders      27
Salinity, effect on sound attenuation      10
Salinity, effect on sound velocity      1
Scale of inhomogeneities, external      19 238
Scale of inhomogeneities, integral      230
Scale of inhomogeneities, internal      19 238
Scattered field, average      203
Scattering coefficient by random inhomogeneities      237
Scattering coefficient by rough surface      187
Scattering coefficient for ocean surface      24 193 205 213
Scattering coefficient of bubble      25 256
Scattering, by bubbles      25
Scattering, by fish      26
Scattering, by ocean bottom      28
Scattering, by random inhomogeneities      234
Scattering, by sea surface      22
Scattering, by surface with two scale of roughness      212
Scattering, combination      197
Scattering, pattern for rough surface      217
Scattering, resonance (selective)      189 237
Scattering, with fractal spectrum      239
Shadow zone      4 9 125
Small perturbation method      184 235
Small-slope approximation      221
Snell’s law      39 118 119 141 153
Snell’s law for range-dependent ocean      50
Sound field in shadow zone      99 171
Sound field in underwater sound channel      129
Sound field, zonal structure      4 125
Sound potential      37
Sound velocity      1
Sound velocity , gradient of      2
Sound velocity at channel’s axis      3
Sound velocity in bubbly water      258
Sound velocity in sea water      2
Sound velocity in sediments      28
Sound velocity,depth dependence of      3 4 6—9 18 124 126
Source, image      81 101
Source, impulsive      102
Source, point      80
Spectrum of Cartesian (quadratic) pressure component      15 247
Spectrum of Garrett — Munk      244
Spectrum of Picrson — Neumann      193
Spectrum of Pierson — Moscovitz      193
Spectrum of random inhomogeneities      237 239
Spectrum of refractive index fluctuations      244
Spectrum of scattered field      23 196 197 210
Spectrum, fractal      239
Spectrum, frequency, of rough sea surface      22
Spectrum, spatial, of rough surface      187 197 213
Spherical wave      38 90
Spherical wave, expansion into plane waves      85
Stationary phase method      89
Stonely wave      76
Structure constant      19 239
Structure function      19 231
Surface channel with rough boundary      215
Surface channel, underwater      6 158
Synoptic eddies      13
Tangent plane method (Kirchhoff approximation)      201
Temperature, effect on absorption      10
Temperature, effect on sound velocity      2
Temperature, fine structure of field of      17
Time, signal spreading      123
Time, travel over ray      41 121 124
Transmission coefficient for plane wave      62 174
Transmission coefficient for plane wave from water into air and vice versa      65
Transport equation      47 232
Trapping coefficient, for sound channel      118
Turbulence      18 238
Underwater sound channel      2 118
Underwater sound channel, canonical      123
Underwater sound channel, hydrostatic      3
Underwater sound channel, integral representation of field in      103 130
Underwater sound channel, linear model of      119
Underwater sound channel, surface      6 158
Underwater sound channel, thermal      3
Underwater sound channel, two-axial      8
Velocity, group, of modes      107 135
Velocity, particle      35
Velocity, phase, of modes      107 135
Velocity, volume      38
Wave, equation      35
Wave, in solid      72
Wave, internal      15
Wave, lateral      91 179
Wave, normal (mode)      105 110 128 131 149
Wave, plane      38 61 74 86 103 185 203
Wave, Rayleigh surface      76
Wave, spherical      38 88 90
Wave, Stonely surface      76
Waveguide, linear      119 132
Waveguide, range-dependent      150
Waveguide, reference      150
Weakly divergent bundles of rays      56
Whispering gallery      121
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