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Angrist S.W., Hepler L.G. — Laws of Order and Chaos
Angrist S.W., Hepler L.G. — Laws of Order and Chaos



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Название: Laws of Order and Chaos

Авторы: Angrist S.W., Hepler L.G.

Аннотация:

"It looks full of hard words and signs and numbers, not very entertaining or understandable looking, and I wonder whether it will make people wiser or better." So wrote a cousin of Josiah Willard Gibbs when she happened onto a copy of his most famous paper on thermodynamics lying on his desk. In this book we have taken great pains to eliminate as many of the "hard words and signs and numbers" as possible and still capture the essence of thermodynamics. We have tried to make the subject both understandable and entertaining, while pointing oiit some of the ways in which it has made life better for man. We believe that the story of the development and applications of thermodynamics is as interesting as it is important, and for that reason we have written this book. To paraphrase an old saw, "Thermodynamics is too important to be left to the thermodynamicists."
Along with telling about the laws of energy and their applications, we have told about the lives of some of the men who have contributed most importantly to our subject. In addition to the technical applications that are generally associated with thermodynamics, we have written about cultural implications in such diverse fields as poetry and the origins of life. Our treatment of all of these subjects has been influenced by Robert Louis Stevenson's dictum that "There is nothing like a little judicious levity."


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/Популярные издания/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 1967

Количество страниц: 237

Добавлена в каталог: 22.07.2005

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
"Pernt"      25
Absolute zero      21 37 38 189—192
Adiabatic demagnetization      190—192
Alcohol, metabolism      133 134
Ammo acids      128 204
Ammonia, formation      183 184
Amontons, Guillaume      36 37 38 45
Anabolism      135—137
Angrist, S.W.      226
Animals, domestication      4
Antisocial behavior      200
Arabia      80
Archimedes      57
Arrhenius, Svante      26
Asimov, Isaac      140 226
Atlantic cable      21
Atomic Energy Commission      93
Automobile, energy use      91
Avogadro’s number      108
Azizia, Tripolitania      42
Babylonians      35
Bacon, Francis      58 59
bacteria      128
Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik      184
Barothermoscope      32
Basal metabolism      130—132
Beans, jumping      174—179
Beans, jumping, and chemical reactions      178 179
Bellman, Richard      152
Bellow, Saul      203
Bent, Henry A.      77 150 226
benzene      119—122
Berthollet, Claude L.      9
Bicycle racers      129
Billings, Josh      87 211
Blum, Harold F.      174 226
Boltzmann, Ludwig      160 217
Boltzmann, Ludwig, distribution equation      187
Boltzmann, Ludwig, entropy relation      189
Bond energy      115—122
Bond, chemical      116
Boyle, Robert      59 60
Breeder reactors      87
Bridgman, Percy W.      215
Brillouin, Leon M.      196 197 199 202 205
British Museum      151
British thermal unit, definition      223
Brown, S. C      225
California, University of      25 27 38
Caloric theory      61—63 71 76 162
Calorie, definition      67 223
Calorimeter, illustration      109
Cannon-boring experiment      63
Carbohydrates      125 126 128 129 138 140
Carbon cycle      138
Carnivores      139
Carnot engine      156
Carnot, Lazare      15
Carnot, Nicolas Leonard Sadi      9 15 64 76 156 161—163 220 226
Catabolism      134—137 140
Cavendish laboratory      22
Cavendish, Henry      125
Caviar, cost of energy      90
Celsius, Anders      36
Chaucer      55
Chemical bonds      116
Chemical reactions, enthalpy changes      114 115
Chevreul, Michael      126
Chicago, University of      204
Churchill, Winston      203
Clapeyron, Emile      16
Clausius, Rudolf J.      16 19 37 73 146 154 162 163 206
Coal      86
Combustion, heat of      110 129
Conant, James      63
Conservation of energy      71—73
Cooling, by heat pump      96 97
Copley Medal      19
Cornell University      27
Cottrell, Fred      78 225
Coupled phenomena      220
Crops, raising      4
Crossbow      4
Cultural development      3
Cyclical process      74 161
Dalton, John      61 64
Daniels, Farrington      137 226
Darapski, Fedor      123
Davy, Humphry      13 15 63
Death Valley      113
Debye, Peter J.W.      25—27 190 217
Democritus      58
Denbigh, K.G.      226
Desalination      99—101
Descartes, Rene      57
Deuterium      171—173
Disorder      147 151
Distillation, fresh water from      100—101
Dulong, Pierre L.      9
DuPont, Eleuthere Irenee      7
d’Alembert, Jean      57 59
Ecole Polytechnique      9 15
Eddington, Arthur S.      146 160
Einstein, Albert      217
Electric power plants and desalination plants      100 101
Electric power plants, capacity      91
Electric power plants, capital costs      93
Electric power plants, efficiency      92
Electrokinetics      221
Energy capital      85
Energy income      85
energy levels      185—189
Energy reserves      86 87
Energy, annual use      83
Energy, bond      116
Energy, conservation of      71—73
Energy, consumption      79 80
Energy, cost      89 90
Energy, cumulative use      83 84
Energy, expended in man      130—132
Energy, in food      133
Energy, in fossil fuels      85—87
Energy, release rates      93
Energy, required to live      123
Energy, resonance      122
Energy, solar      137
Energy, sources of (illustration)      85
Energy, stored in man      132
Energy, surplus      78—80
Energy, units of      223
Enthalpy, definition      107
Enthalpy, reference level      112—114
Entropy and hardness      148
Entropy and linguistics      202 203
Entropy and probability      159 170 171
Entropy and randomness      148 151 171 188
Entropy and temperature      148
Entropy maximum      173
Entropy origin of name      146
Entropy statistical nature      185
Entropy table      148
Equilibrium constant      179—185
Equilibrium state      165—167 173 175
Escaping tendency      167 168 175
Eskimo, conversation with      132
Evaporagraph      51
Explosives      184
Exponents, system      43
Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel      35
Faraday, Michael      64 69 119
Fats, functions      127
Ferdinand II, Grand Duke      33
Ferme Generale      7 8
Fertilizer      182 184
First law      18 73 77 129
First law, examples of      75
First law, statement of      73 103 162
Fleming, Ian      207
Fludd      33
Food chain      138 139
Football parlay cards      158
Football players      129
Fossil fuel reserves      85—87
Fourier, J.B.J.      9 219
French Revolution      7—9 124
Frog, jumping      192
Frost, Robert      198
Fucks, Wilhelm      203
Fuel cell      124
Fuel, fossil      86
Fuel, nuclear      87
Furnas, C.C. and S.M.      226
Fusion, hydrogen      88 139 140
Gabor, Dennis      199
Gage, General      9 10
Galen      31 32 124
Galilei, Galileo      32 57
Galsworthy, John      203
Garden of Eden      204
Garrison, J.B.      49
Gas, natural      86
Gasoline, consumption of      92
Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis      9 66 67
Genesis      205
George III      10 11
Giauque, William Francis      25 27 38 189 190 217
Gibbs, Josiah Willard      22 23 28 180 217
Glucose      125
Gold from seawater      184
Grand Canyon      207 208
Grove, William      64
Guinea pig      81
Gunpowder Commission      7
Haber, Fritz      183 184
Harvard University      15 27
Haslerus, Joannes      32
Heat death      206
heat engine      154—156
Heat of combustion      110 129
Heat, capacity      188
Heat, mechanical equivalent of      70 71
Heat, motion theory of      60 61
Heat, sign convention for      75
Heat, specific      67
Heating, electric resistance      94
Heating, heat pump      94—96
Heisenberg uncertainty pinciple      199
Helium, liquid      190 191
Helmholtz, Hermann von      18—20 64 72 73 162 163 180
Hepler, L.G.      226
Heraclitus      58
Herbivores      139
Hero of Alexandria      32 77 78
Hertz, Heinrich      73
Hess, W.G.      111
Hiroshima      184
Hitler, Adolph      184
Holmes, Sherlock      122
Horsepower      81 82 223
Humpty Dumpty      193 194
Hundred Days      15
Hunter, John      103
Huxley, Aldous      203
Hydogen-deuterium reaction      171—173
Hydroelectric power      88 89
Icebergs      101
Ihde, Aaron J.      8
Income, per capita      80
Industrial Revolution      77
Information theory      28 29 147 188 199
Information theory and negentropy      198 199
Information theory, limit on observation      199
Ingenhousz, Jan      137
Irreversible thermodynamics      218—221
Jaynes, E.T.      29
Johns Hopkins University      23
Joule — Thomson effect      21 190
Joule, James Prescott      18 19 64 68—71 161—163
Jumping beans      174—179
Kafka, Franz      206
Kelvin, Lord      16 20 37 38 71 73 161—163
Kilocalorie      123 223
Kilowatt, definition      223
Koenigsberger, L.      225
Lagrange, Joseph Louis      9 57
Lanson, A.W.      49
Laplace, Pierre Simon      9 111
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent      6 17 61 65 111 124
Lavoisier, Madame      13
Leacock, Stephen      147 213
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von      57 59 60
Lewis, Gilbert Newton      27 28 147 159 167 180 189 227
Leyden jar      72
Liebig, Justus von      64 67
Life and information theory      203 204
Life force      209 211
Life principle      205
Life, origin of      203
Life, unidirectionality of      193
Linguistics      202 203
Lipid      126—129
Living, standard of      79—81
Lof, G.O.G.      86
Lumberjacks      129
MacDonald, D.K.C.      225 227
Macroscopic phenomena      5 216
Mann, Thomas      203
Manpower      82
Manure, horse      63
Marat, Jean Paul      8
Mariana Trench      112
Martinis, cost of energy in      90
Massachusetts Institute of Technology      27
Maximum entropy, state of      173
Maximum probability, state of      174
Maxwell, James Clerk      22 23 194 217
Maxwell’s Demon      194—198
Mayer, Julius Robert      17 18 64—68 162 163 222
Metabolism      130 136
Metabolism of alcohol      133 134
Metabolism of food      134 135
Metabolism, basal      130—132
Mexican jumping beans      174—179
Microscopic disorder      151
Miller, Stanley      204
Minnesota, University of      150
Mohr, Karl      64
Mole, definition      108 126
Monkeys, wild      150
Morris, Gouverneur      12
Mott-Smith, Morton      62 160 227
Mount McKinley      113
Mulder, Gerardus Johannes      127
Munich Arsenal      12
Munich Military Workhouse      10 11
Munich’s English Gardens      10
Napoleon      13 15
Nash, C.D., Jr.      198
Nash, Leonard      184
Natural processes, direction of      145 165
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