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Randall J.T. — The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Randall J.T. — The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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Название: The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Автор: Randall J.T.


For the purposes of structural investigations the various forms of matter may conveniently be divided into four classes,namely, crystalline solids, amorphous solids, liquids, and gases. Following on the work of W. L.Bragg in the years 1912 and 1913 knowledge of the arrangements of atoms and molecules in the crystalline state has increased continually at a very rapid rate.The first investigations on the diffraction of X-rays by amorphous solids and liquids were published by Debye and Scherrer in 1916, but it is only comparatively recently that anything like a proper understanding of the results has been obtained. The theories which have been proposed to explain the experimental results are all ultimately. concerned with the degree of structure in the substances, and the working out of the ideas has depended to a large extent on the results of X-ray crystallography. For example, in order to determine the degree of atomic arrangement that may be assigned to a piece of silica glass or a drop of water, the structures of cristobalite and ice must be accurately known.Between the truly crystalline solid and the amorphous solid there exists a vast region of microcrystalline substances of great chemical and biological importance;of these, carbon blacks, cellulose, stretched rubber, and the proteins may be mentioned.In addition there are the substances which may be microcrystalline in one direction only;this description applies to a large number of surface layers, from those due to chemical action with the underlying substance to the two-dimensional crystal in the form of a gas layer. The method of electron一diffraction is ideally suited to the investigation of structure in such cages as these.Finally, the same method, as well as that of X-ray diffraction,may be used to study the structure of single gaseous molecules.

Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: 1st edition

Год издания: 1934

Количество страниц: 290

Добавлена в каталог: 30.08.2009

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Предметный указатель
$\textit{f}$-factor      17
$\textit{f}$-factor, tables of      262
$\xi$-curves      83—84
Acetone, distance between carbon atoms in      97
Acetyl halides      101
Acetylene, structure of molecule      95
Adam, surface layers      3 156 224
Adsorbed gases and carbon structure      195
Adsorbed gases on nickel, diffraction of electrons by      241
Alanine residues      215
Alcohols, liquid, Stewart and Morrow's results      156
Alcohols, liquid, Warren's interpretation      157
Alg${\ae}$, structure of Valonia ventricosa      209
Aliphatic compounds, distance between carbon atoms in      92 224
Alkali metals, $\xi$ and $f$-curve for sodium      84
Alkali metals, aggregation in vapour phase      132
Alkali metals, diffraction of X-rays by liquid      129—135
Allis and Morse, quantum theory of Ramsauer effect      89
Aluminium, cold-drawn wire      14
Aluminium, liquid      133
Amaldi, diffraction of X-rays by water      137
Amorphous solids      2 28 173
Amorphous solids, theory of diffraction of X-rays by      178
Andrade, viscosity of liquids      165
Andress, cellulose structure      204
Antimony sesquioxide glass      177
Argon, gas, scattering of X-rays by      54
Argon, liquid, scattering of X-rays by      128
Arnot, scattering of slow electrons by atoms      77 80 85
Aromatic compounds, distance between carbon atoms in      93
Asahara, amorphous carbons      190
Astbury, and Marwick, cellulose structure      205
Astbury, and Street, structure of hair and wool      215
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure      200
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure, investigations on muscle      221
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure, views on gelatin      221
Astbury, structure of hair and wool      3
Atomic and ionic radii, tables of      264
Atomic arrangement in crystals      22
Barnes, structure of ice      139
Beilby, aggregation and flow of solids      244
Benzene, liquid      159—161
Benzene, solid      26 161
Benzene, vapour      92
Bernal, and Crowfoot, liquid crystals      253 258
Bernal, and Fowler, structure of ice and water      140 et seq.
Bernal, and Fowler, theory of ionic solution      150
Bernal, crystal structure of amino-acids      222
Bernal, crystal structure of graphite      188
Bethe, refraction of electron waves      239
Bewilogua, diffraction of X-rays by chlorine - substituted methanes      71—73
Bismuth, liquid      134
Bismuth, melting of      252
Bismuth, sesquioxide, vitreous      177
Blatchford, diffraction of X-rays by liquid sulphur      135
Boas and Rupp, diffraction of electrons by passive and pure iron      241
Bohm, X-ray examination of muscle      221
Bone, constitution of coal      196
Boric anhydride, vitreous      177
Born, and K$\acute{a}$rm$\acute{a}$n, vibration of atoms in lattice      260
Born, calculation of crystal spacings and energies      27
Born, lattice dynamics      260
Born, theory of scattering of electrons by gases      81
Boron trichloride vapour      92
Boron trichloride vapour, amide      95
Bradley, structure of selenium      183
Bragg, and, Darby shire, diffraction of electrons by thin films      231
Bragg, focal conics in liquid crystals      259
Bragg, intensity of reflexion      19
Bragg, James and Bosanquet, intensity of X-ray reflexion from crystals      19
Bragg, Sir W. H., structure of ice      139
Bragg, structure of diamond      188
Bragg, structure of silicates      25
Bragg, W. L., Law of Reflexion      11
Braunbek, melting of polar compounds      260
Brill, and Pelzer, determination of particle size      38 42
Brill, determination of particle size      44
Brill, structure of natural silk      215
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by carbon suboxide      99
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by hexafluoride vapours      98 100
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by methyl azide      99 100
Bromine, distance apart of atoms in      92
Bromoform, structure of      97
Bullard and Massey, scattering of slow electrons by atoms      78
Bullard and Massey, scattering of slow electrons by molecules      88
Cadmium, oxide film, diffraction of electrons by      231 232
Cadmium, pyrophosphate, vitreous      177
Cadmium, scattering of electrons by vapour      81
Cameron, investigations on particle size      44
Carbon dioxide, solid      23
Carbon dioxide, structure of molecule      74
Carbon disulphide, structure of molecule      75 92 100
Carbon suboxide, structure of molecule      99
Carbon tetrachloride, dipole moment of      72
Carbon tetrachloride, liquid      122—125
Carbon tetrachloride, vapour      65 91 93 100
Carbon, amorphous      190
Carbon, crystalline forms of      188
Carbon, effect of crystal size on hardness of      191
Carbon, effect of crystal size on spacings      192
Carbon, inner potential of graphite      245
Carbon, single, double, and triple bond distances in compounds of      92 95
Carbonyl compounds, molecular structure      99—100
Catalysis and electron-diffraction      241
Cates, oxidation of iron      241
Celluloid      211
Cellulose, acetates      211
Cellulose, nitrates      209—210
Cellulose, structure of      202 et seq.
Chi$\bar{\imath}}$ds and Massey, scattering of electrons by cadmium vapour      81
Chi$\bar{\imath}}$ds and Massey, scattering of electrons by zinc vapour      88
Chlorine molecule, structure of      76
Chlorine-substituted methanes      72—73
Chloroform, molecular structure of      72
Cholesteric liquid-crystals      254
Clark, amorphous carbons      193
Clark, on cellulose      211
Clark, on gutta-percha      214
Close-packing in liquids      118 134
Close-packing in polish-layers      245
Coal, nature of      196
Coal, X-ray investigations of      197
Collagen, X-ray pattern of      221
Compton, A. H., scattering of X-rays by single atoms      56—57
Coster and Prins, liquid mercury      135
Cotton      see Cellulose
Cotton-grass, X-ray pattern of      211
Cox, crystal-structure of benzene      160—161
Crystals, perfect and imperfect      18
Crystals, size, dependence of spacing on      48
Crystals, structure of      14—26
Cyanogen, structure of molecule      95
Cybotaxis      115 126
Cyclic compounds, structure of      92 95 159
Darbyshire and Dixit, investigation of polish      245
Davisson and Germer, adsorbed gases on nickel      241
Davisson and Germer, experiments on      232 et seq.
Davisson and Germer, inner potential of nickel      239
Davisson and Germer, refraction effect      239
Davisson and Germer, wave-nature of electron      3
de Broglie, wave-nature of electron      76 79 227
Debye and Scherrer, diffraction of X-rays by carbons      190
Debye and Scherrer, diffraction of X-rays by liquids      106
Debye, diffraction of X-rays by- powdered crystals      13 14
Debye, gradation between scattering curves for liquids and gases      166
Debye, scattering of X-rays by gases      62
Debye, scattering of X-rays by liquids      121—124
Debye, structure of isomers      66
Dennison, data for ice      140
Dennison, vibrations in molecules      260
Di-iodobenzenes, molecular structure      98
Diacetylene, structure of      95
Dichlorobenzene, structure of ortho- and para-molecules      76
Dichloroethanes, structure of      71
Dichloroethylene, structure of isomers      70 96
Dichloropentane, free rotation in      96
Dipole moments of chlorine-substituted methanes      72
Distribution of particle size      47
Dornte, diffraction of electrons by vapours      96—97 99
Dupin, cyclides of      259
Durain      197
Dymond and Watson, scattering of electrons by gases      77
Ehrenfest, formula      64
Ehrenfest, scattering of X-rays      62
Ehrhardt, structure of isomeric dichloroethylenes      70—71
Electron-optics      246
Electrons, diffraction by gases and vapours      76 89
Electrons, diffraction by liquids      169
Electrons, diffraction by single crystals      238
Electrons, diffraction by surface layers      240 241
Electrons, diffraction by thin films      231
Electrons, radial distribution of in atoms      58 61
Electrons, wave-nature of      3 76 228
Elsasser, wave-nature of electron      229
Ethane, structure of      95
Ethyl ether, X-ray examination, near critical point      167
Ethyl iodide, C — I distance in      97
Ethyl para-azoxybenzoate liquid crystals      254 256
Ethylene, structure of      95
Ewald and C. Hermann, Strukturbericht      4
Fajans, ionic refractivities in solution      150
Farnsworth, diffraction of electrons by copper      238
Fatty acids, liquid      158
Fax$\acute{e}$n and Holtsmark, theory of electron-scattering by single atoms      87—88
Fibres, organic      200 et seq.
Fibroin      see Silk natural
Finch, electron-diffraction apparatus      237
Focal conic structure of liquid-crystals      253 258
Formic acid, structure in vapour phase      96—97
Fowler (R. H.), partition functions for crystals      22
Fowler structure of water      see Bernal and Fowler
Free rotation in organic compounds      70—71 94—96
French, diffraction of electrons by polished metals      244
Friedel (G. and E.), liquid-crystals      253 256—258
Gajewski, structure of gaseous molecules      72
Gallium, liquid      125 134
Gases, near critical point      166—168
Gases, radial electron distribution in      58—62
Gases, scattering of electrons by      76 89
Gases, scattering of X-rays by      52—62
Gelatin, structure of      221
Germanium oxide, vitreous      182
Germer, diffraction of electrons by adsorbed gases      241 (see also Davisson and Germer)
Glass, conchoidal fracture of      174
Glass, diffraction of X-rays by      175
Glass, Reststrahlen from      186
Glass, results for complex glasses      185
Glass, results for single substance glasses      177
Glucose residues      204 206
Glycerine, effect of temperature on scattering of X-rays      163
Glycine residues      215
Gnomonic projection      7
Goetz, melting of metals      252
Goldschmidt, radius ratio of glass-forming oxides      178
Goldschmidt, values of atomic and ionic radii      264
Goniometer, optical      7
Goniometer, Weissenberg X-ray      202
Grandjeari's terraces      253
Graphite, and amorphous carbons      190
Graphite, change of spacing with crystal size      192
Graphite, crystal structure of      189
Graphite, diffraction of electrons by polished      245
Graphite, inner potential of      245
Graphitic acid      193
Graphitic acid, sorption of potassium between (002) planes      195
Graphitic acid, sorption of water between (002) planes      194
Grinten, van der, effect of heat-motion on scattering of X-rays by $SiCl_{4}$ molecules      76
Gutta-percha, X-ray examination of      214
H$\ddot{u}$ckel, X-ray examination of liquid crystals      256
Hair, effect of steam on      219
Hair, stretched and unstretched, structure of      216
Hardy, coefficient of friction and molecular weight      240
Harnwell, scattering of electrons by gases      77
Hartree, method of self-consistent fields      21 53
Haworth, constitution of sugars      204
Heisenberg, allowance for incoherent radiation      74
Hendricks and others, di-iodobenzenes      98
Hengstenberg and Br$\acute{u}$, structure of formic acid      96
Hengstenberg, size of ramie crystallites      208
Hengstenberg, size of stretched rubber crystallites      213
Hermann, and Krummacher, effect of electric and magnetic fields on liquid crystals      257
Hermann, C., types of mesophase      254
Hermann, K., liquid crystals      257
Herzog, G., scattering of X-rays by gases      55
Herzog, gelatin      221
Herzog, nitrates of cellulose      209
Herzog, R. O., cellulose      204
Hewlett, diffraction of X-rays by liquids      107—109
Hexafiuorides, structure of molecules      98 100
Hofmann, K. A. and U., structure of amorphous carbons      190
Homeomorphous transition from solid to liquid      252
Hydrate cellulose      207
Hydration of ions      149 150
Hydrocarbons, diffraction of X-rays by liquid      151
Hydrocarbons, structure of single molecules      92 95
Ice, crystal structure of      138—142
Incoherent radiation      53—54 57—61 74
Inner potential      239
Intensity of reflexion of X-rays from crystals      17
Ionisation spectrometer      12
Ions, effect of on structure of water      149—150
Iron, diffraction of electrons by      238 241
Isomers, structure of      70 96 97
Isoprene      212
Ives, aggregation of alkali-metal vapour molecules      132
James and Brindley, tables of atomic scattering factors for X-rays ($\textit{f}$-factors)      262
James, temperature-factor in X-ray reflexion from crystals      22
James, temperature-factor in X-ray scattering curves for gases      76
James, temperature-factor in X-ray scattering curves for gases, $\textit{f}$-factors      19
Jauncey, “diffuse” scattering of X-rays by crystals      55 59
Jenkins, polished carbon surfaces      245
Katz, cellulose nitrates      209
Katz, gelatin      221
Katz, liquid fatty acids      158
Katz, rubber      212
Katz, starches      212
Katz, swelling phenomena      210
Keesom and de Smedt, diffraction of X-rays by liquids      128
Keesom and de Smedt, use of Ehrenfest formula      108
Keesom, diffraction of X-rays by liquid alkali metals      130
Keratin      see Hair
Kikuchi lines      238
Knoll and Ruska, on lenses for electrons      247
Kratky and Kuriyama, natural silk      215
Krishnamurti, diffraction of X-rays by liquids      115 158 160 164
Langmuir, surface layers      3 224
Latex, rubber      212
Laue, diffraction of X-rays by crystals      11
Laue, method of determining crystal structure      12
Laue, method of determining particle size      35
Lawrence, liquid crystals      253
Lead, liquid      134
Lead, metasilicate, vitreous      177
Lennard — Jones, activated adsorption      260
Lennard — Jones, crystal energies      27
Lennard — Jones, crystal spacing and crystal size      48
Lennard — Jones, force constants for gases      105
Lindemann, formula for melting-point      259
Liquid crystals      252 et seq.
Liquids, and gases, gradation between      63 166
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