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Randall J.T. — The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Randall J.T. — The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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Название: The Diffraction of X-rays and Electrons By Amorphous Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Автор: Randall J.T.


For the purposes of structural investigations the various forms of matter may conveniently be divided into four classes,namely, crystalline solids, amorphous solids, liquids, and gases. Following on the work of W. L.Bragg in the years 1912 and 1913 knowledge of the arrangements of atoms and molecules in the crystalline state has increased continually at a very rapid rate.The first investigations on the diffraction of X-rays by amorphous solids and liquids were published by Debye and Scherrer in 1916, but it is only comparatively recently that anything like a proper understanding of the results has been obtained. The theories which have been proposed to explain the experimental results are all ultimately. concerned with the degree of structure in the substances, and the working out of the ideas has depended to a large extent on the results of X-ray crystallography. For example, in order to determine the degree of atomic arrangement that may be assigned to a piece of silica glass or a drop of water, the structures of cristobalite and ice must be accurately known.Between the truly crystalline solid and the amorphous solid there exists a vast region of microcrystalline substances of great chemical and biological importance;of these, carbon blacks, cellulose, stretched rubber, and the proteins may be mentioned.In addition there are the substances which may be microcrystalline in one direction only;this description applies to a large number of surface layers, from those due to chemical action with the underlying substance to the two-dimensional crystal in the form of a gas layer. The method of electron一diffraction is ideally suited to the investigation of structure in such cages as these.Finally, the same method, as well as that of X-ray diffraction,may be used to study the structure of single gaseous molecules.

Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: 1st edition

Год издания: 1934

Количество страниц: 290

Добавлена в каталог: 30.08.2009

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Предметный указатель
$\textit{f}$-factor      17
$\textit{f}$-factor, tables of      262
$\xi$-curves      83—84
Acetone, distance between carbon atoms in      97
Acetyl halides      101
Acetylene, structure of molecule      95
Adam, surface layers      3 156 224
Adsorbed gases and carbon structure      195
Adsorbed gases on nickel, diffraction of electrons by      241
Alanine residues      215
Alcohols, liquid, Stewart and Morrow's results      156
Alcohols, liquid, Warren's interpretation      157
Alg${\ae}$, structure of Valonia ventricosa      209
Aliphatic compounds, distance between carbon atoms in      92 224
Alkali metals, $\xi$ and $f$-curve for sodium      84
Alkali metals, aggregation in vapour phase      132
Alkali metals, diffraction of X-rays by liquid      129—135
Allis and Morse, quantum theory of Ramsauer effect      89
Aluminium, cold-drawn wire      14
Aluminium, liquid      133
Amaldi, diffraction of X-rays by water      137
Amorphous solids      2 28 173
Amorphous solids, theory of diffraction of X-rays by      178
Andrade, viscosity of liquids      165
Andress, cellulose structure      204
Antimony sesquioxide glass      177
Argon, gas, scattering of X-rays by      54
Argon, liquid, scattering of X-rays by      128
Arnot, scattering of slow electrons by atoms      77 80 85
Aromatic compounds, distance between carbon atoms in      93
Asahara, amorphous carbons      190
Astbury, and Marwick, cellulose structure      205
Astbury, and Street, structure of hair and wool      215
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure      200
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure, investigations on muscle      221
Astbury, Fundamentals of Fibre Structure, views on gelatin      221
Astbury, structure of hair and wool      3
Atomic and ionic radii, tables of      264
Atomic arrangement in crystals      22
Barnes, structure of ice      139
Beilby, aggregation and flow of solids      244
Benzene, liquid      159—161
Benzene, solid      26 161
Benzene, vapour      92
Bernal, and Crowfoot, liquid crystals      253 258
Bernal, and Fowler, structure of ice and water      140 et seq.
Bernal, and Fowler, theory of ionic solution      150
Bernal, crystal structure of amino-acids      222
Bernal, crystal structure of graphite      188
Bethe, refraction of electron waves      239
Bewilogua, diffraction of X-rays by chlorine - substituted methanes      71—73
Bismuth, liquid      134
Bismuth, melting of      252
Bismuth, sesquioxide, vitreous      177
Blatchford, diffraction of X-rays by liquid sulphur      135
Boas and Rupp, diffraction of electrons by passive and pure iron      241
Bohm, X-ray examination of muscle      221
Bone, constitution of coal      196
Boric anhydride, vitreous      177
Born, and K$\acute{a}$rm$\acute{a}$n, vibration of atoms in lattice      260
Born, calculation of crystal spacings and energies      27
Born, lattice dynamics      260
Born, theory of scattering of electrons by gases      81
Boron trichloride vapour      92
Boron trichloride vapour, amide      95
Bradley, structure of selenium      183
Bragg, and, Darby shire, diffraction of electrons by thin films      231
Bragg, focal conics in liquid crystals      259
Bragg, intensity of reflexion      19
Bragg, James and Bosanquet, intensity of X-ray reflexion from crystals      19
Bragg, Sir W. H., structure of ice      139
Bragg, structure of diamond      188
Bragg, structure of silicates      25
Bragg, W. L., Law of Reflexion      11
Braunbek, melting of polar compounds      260
Brill, and Pelzer, determination of particle size      38 42
Brill, determination of particle size      44
Brill, structure of natural silk      215
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by carbon suboxide      99
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by hexafluoride vapours      98 100
Brockway and Pauling, diffraction of electrons by methyl azide      99 100
Bromine, distance apart of atoms in      92
Bromoform, structure of      97
Bullard and Massey, scattering of slow electrons by atoms      78
Bullard and Massey, scattering of slow electrons by molecules      88
Cadmium, oxide film, diffraction of electrons by      231 232
Cadmium, pyrophosphate, vitreous      177
Cadmium, scattering of electrons by vapour      81
Cameron, investigations on particle size      44
Carbon dioxide, solid      23
Carbon dioxide, structure of molecule      74
Carbon disulphide, structure of molecule      75 92 100
Carbon suboxide, structure of molecule      99
Carbon tetrachloride, dipole moment of      72
Carbon tetrachloride, liquid      122—125
Carbon tetrachloride, vapour      65 91 93 100
Carbon, amorphous      190
Carbon, crystalline forms of      188
Carbon, effect of crystal size on hardness of      191
Carbon, effect of crystal size on spacings      192
Carbon, inner potential of graphite      245
Carbon, single, double, and triple bond distances in compounds of      92 95
Carbonyl compounds, molecular structure      99—100
Catalysis and electron-diffraction      241
Cates, oxidation of iron      241
Celluloid      211
Cellulose, acetates      211
Cellulose, nitrates      209—210
Cellulose, structure of      202 et seq.
Chi$\bar{\imath}}$ds and Massey, scattering of electrons by cadmium vapour      81
Chi$\bar{\imath}}$ds and Massey, scattering of electrons by zinc vapour      88
Chlorine molecule, structure of      76
Chlorine-substituted methanes      72—73
Chloroform, molecular structure of      72
Cholesteric liquid-crystals      254
Clark, amorphous carbons      193
Clark, on cellulose      211
Clark, on gutta-percha      214
Close-packing in liquids      118 134
Close-packing in polish-layers      245
Coal, nature of      196
Coal, X-ray investigations of      197
Collagen, X-ray pattern of      221
Compton, A. H., scattering of X-rays by single atoms      56—57
Coster and Prins, liquid mercury      135
Cotton      see Cellulose
Cotton-grass, X-ray pattern of      211
Cox, crystal-structure of benzene      160—161
Crystals, perfect and imperfect      18
Crystals, size, dependence of spacing on      48
Crystals, structure of      14—26
Cyanogen, structure of molecule      95
Cybotaxis      115 126
Cyclic compounds, structure of      92 95 159
Darbyshire and Dixit, investigation of polish      245
Davisson and Germer, adsorbed gases on nickel      241
Davisson and Germer, experiments on      232 et seq.
Davisson and Germer, inner potential of nickel      239
Davisson and Germer, refraction effect      239
Davisson and Germer, wave-nature of electron      3
de Broglie, wave-nature of electron      76 79 227
Debye and Scherrer, diffraction of X-rays by carbons      190
Debye and Scherrer, diffraction of X-rays by liquids      106
Debye, diffraction of X-rays by- powdered crystals      13 14
Debye, gradation between scattering curves for liquids and gases      166
Debye, scattering of X-rays by gases      62
Debye, scattering of X-rays by liquids      121—124
Debye, structure of isomers      66
Dennison, data for ice      140
Dennison, vibrations in molecules      260
Di-iodobenzenes, molecular structure      98
Diacetylene, structure of      95
Dichlorobenzene, structure of ortho- and para-molecules      76
Dichloroethanes, structure of      71
Dichloroethylene, structure of isomers      70 96
Dichloropentane, free rotation in      96
Dipole moments of chlorine-substituted methanes      72
Distribution of particle size      47
Dornte, diffraction of electrons by vapours      96—97 99
Dupin, cyclides of      259
Durain      197
Dymond and Watson, scattering of electrons by gases      77
Ehrenfest, formula      64
Ehrenfest, scattering of X-rays      62
Ehrhardt, structure of isomeri