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Luder S., Zuffanti W.F. — The Electronic Theory of Acids and Bases
Luder S., Zuffanti W.F. — The Electronic Theory of Acids and Bases

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Название: The Electronic Theory of Acids and Bases

Авторы: Luder S., Zuffanti W.F.

Аннотация:

The theory of relativity in physics has led to an increased amount of correlation in physical phenomena and to a keener insight into the fundamental problems of physics. More recently, another kind of relativity theory has made its appearance in chemistry. We owe this theory to the brilliant intuition of G. N. Lewis, by whom it was first proposed in 1923. Unfortunately, it was largely overlooked until about 1940. Since then, numerous papers have been published supporting and developing the theory, which is becoming known as the electronic theory of acids and bases.
According to the Lewis theory, acidity and basicity have nothing to do with the presence of any one element or specific group of elements. Nor is any particular substance to be considered an acid or a base in an absolute sense. Acidity and basicity are relative terms indicating certain types of experimental behavior which may be exhibited by the vast majority of chemical compounds. Most of them may behave either as acids or as bases depending upon conditions.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Издание: 1st edition

Год издания: 1946

Количество страниц: 165

Добавлена в каталог: 29.08.2009

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
$o$ — Benzoylbenzoic acid, in preparation of anthraquinone      132
$\beta$ — Keto esters, formation of      112
1, 2—Diplienylpropane, preparation of      122
1, 4—Dioxane, basic behavior of      92
3, 3—Diphenylpropanoic acid, preparation of      122
3-Phenyl-1-propene, preparation of      122
3–Phenyl-1-propene, alkylation with      122
Acceptor molecules      16
Acetate ion      7 8
Acetates, basic behavior of      138
Acetic acid      8 9 47 56
Acetic acid, association of      40
Acetic acid, titration of      92
Acetone, as a base      16
Acetone, displaced by pyridine      99
ACID      43
Acid-analogous      13
Acidic radicals      62 63
Activation      60 62
Acylation, mechanism of      123
Acylation, with carboxy anhydrides      125
Acylation, with carboxy compounds      124
Acylation, with esters      123
Addition compounds      88
Alcohols, basic behavior of      109 117
Alcohols, halogenation of      129
Alcohols, titration of      92 93
Aldehydes, acidic behavior of      112
Aldehydes, amphoteric behavior of      61
Aldehydes, basic behavior of      126 127
Aldehydes, reaction with semicarbazide      127
Aldol condensations      138 151
Alkali metal acetates, catalytic action of      141
Alkoxides, alkali metal      151
Alkoxides, aluminum      50
Alkoxides, basic behavior of      111
Alkoxides, catalytic effect of      111 126 140
Alkyl halides, alkylation with      115
Alkyl halides, basic behavior of      115
Alkylation, mechanism of      110 116 119
Alkylation, with alcohols      109 117
Alkylation, with alkyl halides      115
Alkylation, with allyl alcohol      122
Alkylation, with benzyl chloride      121
Alkylation, with cinnamic acid      122
Alkylation, with esters      120
Alkylation, with ethers      119
Alkylation, with olefins      111 116
Alkylation, with three-phenyl-1-propene      122
Allyl alcohol, alkylation with      122
Aluminum alkoxides, acidic behavior of      50 126 153
Aluminum alkoxides, catalytic effect of      126
Aluminum amide      56
Aluminum bromide      43 44
Aluminum chloride      10 11 12 16 19 20 45
Aluminum chloride, catalytic effect of      110 115 117 124
Aluminum chloride, titration of      93
Aluminum hydroxide      11 56 60
Aluminum sulfite      11
Amide ion      9 55
Amino radicals      81 83
Ammonia, as a base      6 7 9 17 39 41 42 43
Ammonia, displaced by triethylamine      99
Ammonia, solvent      10 56
Ammonia, titration of      92
Ammonium chloride      60
Ammonium iodide      10
Ammonium ion      6 7 8 9 41
Ammonium ion, as an oxidizing agent      10
Ammonium sulfide      14
Ammono acid      10
Amphoteric behavior      60 61 71
Amphoteric behavior of, aluminum amide      56
Amphoteric behavior of, aluminum hydroxide      56
Amphoteric behavior of, benzaldehyde      146
Amphoteric behavior of, hydrogen chloride      74
Amphoteric behavior of, iodide ion      65
Amphoteric behavior of, quinhy drone      75
Amphoteric behavior of, quinone      75
Amphoteric behavior of, water      74 75
Amphoteric behavior of, zinc acetate      56
Amphoteric behavior of, zinc amide      10 56
Amphoteric behavior of, zinc hydroxide      10 56
Anhydrides, titration of      93
Aniline, substitution in      83
Anion, increased concentration of, by bases      11 49—52
Anion, reducing action of      53 54 55 69
Anionoid radicals      80
Antimony pentasulfide      14
Antimony trichloride      12
Antimony trichloride, conductance in ether      51
Argon, boron trifluoride compound of      59
Arrhenius      1 3
Arsenic trichloride, conductance of in ether      51
Arsenious chloride      12
Atomic orbitals      18 21 22 23 25
Atomic structure chart      24
Barium hydroxide, basic behavior of      139
Base      43
Basic radicals      62 63
Benzaldehyde, acidic behavior of      112
Benzene, as a base      63
Benzene, solvent      4 57
Benzoin reaction      147
Benzyl alcohol, preparation of      130
Benzyl chloride, alkylation with      121
Benzyl chloride, hydrolysis of      130
Benzylate ion, catalytic effect of      147
Beryllium chloride      19
Berzelius, theory of acids and bases      5 6
Bismuth chloride      10
Bismuth iodide      10
Bismuth nitride      10
Bismuth oxide      10
Bisulfate ion      7
Boric acid      10
Boron amide      10
Boron hydrides      21
Boron trichloride      16 17 19 29 39 42 43 47
Boron trichloride, titration of      91 92 93
Boron trifluoride      51
Boron trifluoride, argon compound of      59
Boron trifluoride, catalyst in alkylations      109 111 118
Boron trifluoride, catalyst in sulfonation and nitration      130
Boyle, properties of acids      3
Br${\o}$nsted — Lowry theory      5 6 7 8 9
Bromination of phenanthrene      129
Bromine pentafluoride      34
Bromine, basic behavior of      128
Cady and Elsey      11
Calcium chloride      11
Calcium oxide      5
Cannizzaro reaction, acid catalyzed      126
Cannizzaro reaction, base catalyzed      112 145 152
Carbanions      77 111 112
Carbon dioxide      3 4 6 47 49 62
Carbon dioxide, displaced by boron trichloride      98
Carbon dioxide, displaced by silicon dioxide      98
Carbon dioxide, displaced by stannic chloride      98
Carbon dioxide, electronic formula of      38
Carbon dioxide, secondary acid      62
Carbon monoxide      10
Carbon tetrachloride, as a solvent      4
Carbon tetrachloride, titrations in      93
Carbonates, basic behavior of      138 141
Carbonium ions      76 84 109 110 115 118 120 121 122 123 125 130
Carbonyl compounds, reaction with hydrazine      127
Carbonyl compounds, reaction with hydroxylamine      127
Carbonyl compounds, reaction with semicarbazide      127
Carbonyl group, amphoteric behavior of      61
Carbonyls      20
Carboxy anhydrides, acylation writh      125
Carboxy compounds, acylation with      124
Catalysis      15
Catalysis, definition      107
Catalysts, acidic      108
Catalysts, basic      111
Catalysts, electron-release      145 152
Catalysts, electron-withdrawal      145 152
Catalytic action, of acetates      138
Catalytic action, of alkali metal acetates      141
Catalytic action, of alkali metal alkoxides      151
Catalytic action, of alkoxide      111
Catalytic action, of aluminum alkoxides      126 153
Catalytic action, of aluminum chloride      110 115 117 124
Catalytic action, of barium hydroxide      139
Catalytic action, of benzylate ions      147
Catalytic action, of boron trifluoride      109 111 118
Catalytic action, of carbonates      138 141
Catalytic action, of cyanides      147
Catalytic action, of hydrogen chloride      110
Catalytic action, of hydrogen fluoride      108 110 115 121 122 125
Catalytic action, of hydroxyl ions      112
Catalytic action, of magnesium aluminum alkoxides      150
Catalytic action, of mercuric ions      130
Catalytic action, of phosphates      142
Catalytic action, of pyridine      138 142
Catalytic action, of quinoline      142
Catalytic action, of sulfates      142
Catalytic action, of sulfur trioxide      110
Catalytic action, of triphenylmethyl carbanion      140
Catalytic action, of zinc chloride      110
Catalytic action, of “complex” alkoxides      154
Cation, increased concentration of, by acids      11 47—52
Cation, oxidizing action of      10 11 53 54 69
Chelation      106
Chloride ion displaced by water      99
Chlorine      14
Chlorobenzene solutions, titrations in      92
Chloroform as a solvent      4
Chromic acid      34
Cinnamic acid, alkylation with      122
Cinnamic acid, preparation of      142
Claisen condensation of esters      111
Claisen reaction      140
Classification of chemical reactions      77 78 79
Combination      77 78
Complex ions, of aluminum      27 39
Complex ions, of molybdenum      39
Complex ions, of silicon      27 29 39 59
Complex ions, of silver      100
Complex ions, of tin      59
Complex ions, of zirconium      39
Concentration effects, anion      52 70
Concentration effects, cation      52 70
Condensation, of aldehydes      138
Condensation, of carboxy anhydrides      141
Condensation, of esters      140
Condensation, of ketones      139
Conductance, antimony trichloride in ether      51
Conductance, arsenic trichloride in ether      51
Conductance, in ethylenediamine      64
Conductance, potassium iodide in ethylenediamine      64
Conductance, silver salts in ethylenediamine      64
Conductance, sulfuric acid in ether      51
Conjugate acid      9
Conjugate base      9
Conjugate pairs      7
Conjugate system      7
Coordinate covalent bond      see Valence
Coordination compounds      20
covalent bond      see Valence
Crotonization      151
Crystal violet, indicator in titrations      16 91 92 93
Crystal violet, quinoid structure      95
Cyanide ion      9
Cyanides, catalytic action of      147
Cyano radicals      81
Cyclic ion, in antliraquinone formation      134
Davy      3 6
Decomposition      77 78
Deuterium water in Cannizzaro reaction      146
Diacetone alcohol, formation of      139
Dimethyl ether as a base      4
Dioxane sulfotrioxide, reaction with olefins      109
Diphenylmethane, preparation of      121
Displacement      77 87 89 98 99 100
Dissociation constants      46 47 48 49 50 64
Donor molecules      16
Electro valence      see Valence
Electrodotic reagents      71 72
Electrolysis      55
Electron affinity      36 37 38
Electron configuration      23 24 25 26
Electron-release catalysts      145 152
Electron-release effect of hydroxyl ions      146
Electron-withdrawal catalysts      146
Electron-withdrawal effect of cyanide ions      146
Electronic symbols      25 26 27
Electrophilic reagents      71 72
energy levels      22 23
Equilibrium constant      8
Ester anion formation      140
Esters, acidic behavior of      111
Esters, acylation with      123
Esters, alkylation with      120
Esters, basic behavior of      120 123
Esters, preparation from aldehydes      126
Esters, titration of      94
Ethers, alkylation with      119
Ethers, basic behavior of      119
Ethers, titration of      93
Ethoxide ion      9
Ethyl alcohol      7 12
Ethylenediamine, solvent      63 64 65
Excitation of secondary acids and bases      61
Experimental criteria of acid-base properties, Boyle      3
Experimental criteria of acid-base properties, Lewis      15 43
F-strain      106
Ferric bromide, acidic behavior of      128
Ferric chloride      11
Ferric cyanide      14
Fluorine      30
Franklin      9
Free radicals      75 76 77
Friedel — Crafts catalysts, boron trifluoride      109 111
Friedel — Crafts catalysts, hydrogen fluoride      108 110 115 121 122 125
Friedel — Crafts catalysts, phosphoric acid      108
Friedel — Crafts catalysts, sulfuric acid      108
Friedel — Crafts reactions      63
Fries reaction      124
Germann      10 11
Glycol ester formation      155
H-acids      see Hydrogen acid
Halogenation, mechanism of      128
Halogenation, of alcohols      129
Halogenation, of aromatic compounds      128
Halogenation, of phenanthrene      129
Heat of activation in neutralization      60
Hexaphenylethane      76
Hydrazines, preparation of      127
Hydride ion removal, in carbonyl reactions      153
Hydrochloric acid      6 7 15
Hydrochloric acid, titration of      92
Hydrogen acid      45 99
Hydrogen acid, titration of      92
Hydrogen as a constituent of acids      5 6
Hydrogen bridge      40 44
Hydrogen chloride, as a base      60
Hydrogen chloride, catalytic activity of      110
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