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Lieberman M.A., Lichtenberg A.J. Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing
Lieberman M.A., Lichtenberg A.J.  Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing









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: Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing

: Lieberman M.A., Lichtenberg A.J.

:

"The first edition of Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, published over a decade ago, was lauded for its complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma processing, quickly becoming the primary reference for students and professionals." "The Second Edition has been carefully updated and revised to reflect recent developments in the field and to further clarify the presentation of basic principles. Along with in-depth coverage of the fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry, the authors apply basic theory to plasma discharges, including calculations of plasma parameters and the scaling of plasma parameters with control parameters." With new chapters on dusty plasmas and the kinetic theory of discharges, graduate students and researchers in the field of plasma processing should find this new edition more valuable than ever.


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ed2k: ed2k stats

: 1994

: 572

: 28.06.2005

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${CF}_{4}$ discharge      488 497ff
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, ${O}_{2}$ and ${H}_{2}$ additions      501503
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, basic data      497
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, inhibitor film formation      499501
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, rate constants      498 (figures)
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, silicon dioxide etching      505506
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, silicon etching      497ff
${CF}_{4}$ discharge, surface kinetics      499501
${SiH}_{4}$ discharge      515516
${SiH}_{4}$ discharge, rate constants      516 (tables)
Actinometry      258260
Adsorption      283286 292295
Adsorption, chemisorption      284 292293
Adsorption, dissociative      284 293
Adsorption, physical      293294
Adsorption, physisorption      283284
Affinity, electron      199 224 229231 492
Ambipolar diffusion      see Diffusion ambipolar Diffusion in
Anodization      514
Argon, collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair      81 (figure)
Argon, cross sections      73 (figure) 78
Argon, discharge model      304ff
Argon, first Townsend coefficient      459 (figure)
Argon, ion-neutral mean free path      80
Argon, probability of collision      65 (figure)
Argon, rate constants      80 (figure)
atom      64ff
Atom, degeneracy      67
Atom, electronic configuration      67
Atom, energy levels      6671
Atom, fine structure      68
Atom, metastable      7071
Atom, optical emission from      6870 256258
Atom, valence electrons      67
Bohm, criterion      see Sheath Bohm
Bohm, velocity      158
Bohr radius      66
Boltzmann constant      36
Boltzmann equation      3132
Boltzmann relation      3940
Breakdown      see Dc discharge vacuum
Capacitive discharge      819 327ff
Capacitive discharge, asymmetric      368ff
Capacitive discharge, experiments      354358 377378
Capacitive discharge, homogeneous model      43 328ff
Capacitive discharge, inhomogeneous model      339ff
Capacitive discharge, magnetically enhanced (MERIE)      19 373ff
Capacitive discharge, matching network      378382
Capacitive discharge, resonant      338
Capacitive discharge, scaling      349350 372
Capacitive discharge, secondary electrons      367368
Capacitive discharge, simulations      358367
Cathode fall      see Dc discharge cathode
Cavity perturbation      see Diagnostics wave
Charge, bound      29
Charge, free      29
Chemical equilibrium      205ff see
Chemical equilibrium, between phases      210213
Chemical equilibrium, constant      207209 249250 268269
Chemical equilibrium, heterogeneous      21 Off
Chemical equilibrium, surface coverage      213215
Chemical equilibrium, vapor pressure      210213 212
Chemical etching      see Etching chemical
Chemical kinetics      265ff see
Chemical kinetics, gas-phase      269ff
Chemical kinetics, surface      288ff 294296
chemical potential      203205
Chemical reaction      191192 205ff see
Chemical reaction, consecutive      270272
Chemical reaction, elementary      265267
Chemical reaction, equilibrium      205ff
Chemical reaction, opposing      273
Chemical reaction, rates      246ff 264269
Chemical reaction, stoichiometric      205ff
Chemical reaction, surface      288ff 294296
Chemical reaction, three-body      275ff
Chemical reaction, three-body recombination      277279
Chemical reaction, with photon emission      274275
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)      5 512ff
Chemisorption      see Adsorption
Child law      see Sheath Child
Clausius Clapeyron equation      211
Collision      see also Collision parameter Cross
Collision dynamics      51ff 541ff see
Collision dynamics, adiabatic Massey criterion      235
Collision dynamics, Arrhenius dependence      247248
Collision dynamics, Boltzmann collision integral      547ff
Collision dynamics, center-of-mass coordinates      5154
Collision dynamics, differential scattering      4851
Collision dynamics, Druyvesteyn distribution      552553
Collision dynamics, energy transfer      5455
Collision dynamics, Frank Condon principle      224
Collision dynamics, Krook operator      549550
Collision dynamics, small angle scattering      5557
Collision parameter      see also Cross section
Collision parameter, cross section      46
Collision parameter, frequency      47
Collision parameter, impact parameter      48
Collision parameter, mean free path      47
Collision parameter, probability      64
Collision parameter, rate constant      47
Collision, associative detachment      239241
Collision, associative ionization      243 250
Collision, autodetachment      224
Collision, autodissociation      222
Collision, autoionization      222
Collision, charge transfer      7377 236238
Collision, coulomb      5760 543545
Collision, deexcitation      250
Collision, dissociation      4 225ff
Collision, dissociative electron attachment      229
Collision, dissociative ionization      227
Collision, dissociative recombination      227228 250
Collision, elastic      4546 57ff 234 244245
Collision, electron detachment      233
Collision, electron-ion      5760
Collision, electron-neutral      33 6064
Collision, heavy particle      234ff 244
Collision, inelastic      4546 64ff
Collision, ionization      7172
Collision, molecular      217ff
Collision, mutual neutralization      see Collision positive-negative
Collision, Penning ionization      242
Collision, polar dissociation      232
Collision, polarization scattering      6064 244
Collision, positive-negative ion recombination      238239
Collision, rearrangement of chemical bonds      243244
Collision, recombination      238239
Collision, small angle scattering      5557
Collision, three-body      245 250
Collision, transfer of excitation      241243
Collision, vibrational and rotational excitation      233234
Conductivity, dc plasma      94
Conductivity, plasma      94
Confinement, magnetic      8788 100 103 140ff
Confinement, multipole      see Multipole magnetic confinement
Conservation, energy      3637 89 304ff 3l5ff 334338
Conservation, equations      31ff
Conservation, momentum      3436
Conservation, particles      33 306 309310 315ff 334
Continuity equation      2627
Continuity equation, macroscopic      33
Cross section      46 see
Cross section, argon      73 (figure) 78
Cross section, capture      see Cross section Langevin
Cross section, charge transfer      7377
Cross section, differential      4851
Cross section, excitation      7273
Cross section, gas kinetic      290 (table)
Cross section, hard sphere      5051
Cross section, ionization      7172
Cross section, Langevin      6263 244
Cross section, oxygen      252253 (figures)
Cross section, Rutherford      545
Cross section, Thompson ionization      7172
Cross section, total      50
Current, conduction      2627 106
Current, continuity      2628
Current, displacement      2627 106
Current, magnetization      2627 106
Current, polarization      2627
Current, total      27 9396
Cyclotron frequency      8687
Dc discharge      450ff see
Dc discharge, anode sheath      452
Dc discharge, cathode fall thickness      462 (table)
Dc discharge, cathode fall voltage      462 (table)
Dc discharge, cathode sheath      452 457ff
Dc discharge, diffusion      454455
Dc discharge, Faraday dark space      452 464
Dc discharge, Paschen curve      459460
Dc discharge, positive column      451 454ff
Dc discharge, Townsend coefficient      458
Dc discharge, vacuum breakdown      457460
Debye length      4042 44
density      see Electron density Neutral
Deposition, chemical vapor (CVD)      512ff
Deposition, of amorphous silicon      515ff
Deposition, of silicon dioxide      518ff
Deposition, of silicon nitride      522
Deposition, plasma-enhanced CVD      see Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
Deposition, reaction rates      516
Deposition, sputter      see Sputter deposition
Desorption      283287 292295
Desorption, associative      287
Detailed balancing      248ff
Diagnostics      see also Measurements
Diagnostics, microwave      120ff
Diagnostics, optical      see Actinometry Optical
Diagnostics, probe      see Probe diagnostics
Diagnostics, wave      120ff
dielectric constant      9394
Dielectric constant, effective      29
Dielectric constant, perpendicular      106
Dielectric constant, tensor      108110
Diffusion      129ff 551552
Diffusion, across a magnetic field      140ff
Diffusion, across multipoles      146ff
Diffusion, ambipolar      131132 143145
Diffusion, Bohm      145
Diffusion, constant      130 552
Diffusion, Einstein relation      130
Diffusion, Fick's law      130
Diffusion, in electronegative plasmas      312314
Diffusion, Langmuir regime      139
Diffusion, low pressure      137ff
Diffusion, of neutrals      290292
Diffusion, random walk      130 152
Diffusion, simulation in electronegative plasma      323324
Diffusion, solutions      132ff
Diffusion, steady state      134136
Diffusion, variable mobility model      137138
Discharge      see also Capacitive discharge Dc Electron Helical Helicon Inductive Planar Surface Wave-heated
Discharge, electronegative model      312ff
Discharge, electropositive model      304ff
Discharge, high density      1922 387388
Discharge, high pressure      8 305
Discharge, hot filament      149 538
Discharge, intermediate pressure      305
Discharge, low pressure      5 304
Discharge, neutral radical density model      486488
Discharge, nonuniform density model      309311 318323
Discharge, typical parameters      21 (table)
Discharge, uniform density model      306309 315318
Distribution function      31
Distribution function, Druyvesteyn      552553
Distribution function, electron      10
Distribution function, electron energy (EEDF)      39 177
Distribution function, electron energy probability (EEPF)      177
Distribution function, Maxwellian      38 548549
Druyvesteyn distribution      552553
ECR      see Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)
Electron cyclotron discharge      20 413ff
Electron cyclotron discharge, configurations      413418
Electron cyclotron discharge, coupling      414416
Electron cyclotron discharge, electron heating      418ff
Electron cyclotron discharge, magnetic beach      415
Electron cyclotron discharge, measurements      433434
Electron cyclotron discharge, plasma expansion      429433
Electron cyclotron discharge, simulations      428
Electron cyclotron discharge, wave absorption      422ff
Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), 113, 117      see also Electron cyclotron discharge
Electron density      33
Electron density, calculation of      308
Electron density, measurement of      see Probe diagnostics Diagnostics wave
Electron distribution function      see Distribution function electron
Electron temperature      3739
Electron temperature, calculation of      306
Electron temperature, measurement of      see Probe diagnostics
Electronegative discharge      312ff
Electronegative discharge, nonuniform model      318323
Electronegative discharge, simulations      323325
Electronegative discharge, uniform model      315318
Electrostatic probes      see Probe diagnostics
Emission, Auger electron      282
Emission, optical      see Optical emission
Emission, secondary      282283 283
Energy      192195
Energy, average kinetic energy lost per particle lost      39
Energy, balance      see Conservation energy
Energy, collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair      81
Energy, density      33
Energy, distribution      see Distribution function
Energy, electron      see Distribution function
Energy, Fermi      280 492494
Energy, Gibbs free      192 196197 199ff
Energy, ion bombarding      10 12 16 19 21 306307 347349 351 432433
Enthalpy      192ff
Enthalpy, bond dissociation      199 (table)
Enthalpy, formation of gaseous atoms      200 (table)
Enthalpy, standard molar formation      195199 (tables)
entropy      199ff
Entropy, standard molar      202
Equation of state, adiabatic      36 99
Equation of state, isothermal      35
Equation of state, perfect gas      35 192
Equilibrium      see Chemical equilibrium Plasma Thermal
Etching      472ff
Etching, ${O}_{2}$ and ${H}_{2}$ feedstock additions      501503
Etching, aluminum      507510
Etching, anisotropy      2 474477 483 500
Etching, chemical      478479 490ff
Etching, chemical framework      489490
Etching, discharge kinetics      485488
Etching, doping effect      492494
Etching, for microfabrication      24
Etching, gas feedstocks      489
Etching, in ${CF}_{4}$ discharge      497ff
Etching, inhibitor films      215 477 480 489490
Etching, ion enhanced      6 479480 494497
Etching, isotropic      3 474477
Etching, loading effect      487488 501
Etching, processes      477480
Etching, reaction rates      473 498 504
Etching, requirements      473477
Etching, resist      508ff
Etching, selectivity      3 473477
Etching, silicon by halogens      4 5 490ff
Etching, silicon dioxide      505506
Etching, silicon using chlorine      504 (table)
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