Optimal design, optimal control, and parameter estimation of systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) give rise to a class of problems known as PDE-constrained optimization. The size and complexity of the discretized PDEs often pose significant challenges for contemporary optimization methods. With the maturing of technology for PDE simulation, interest has now increased in PDE-based optimization. The chapters in this volume collectively assess the state-of-the-art in PDE-constrained optimization, identify challenges to optimization presented by modern highly parallel PDE simulation codes, and discuss promising algorithmic and software approaches for addressing them. These contributions represent current research of two strong scientific computing communities, in optimization and PDE simulation. This volume merges perspectives in these two different areas and identifies interesting open questions for further research.