The theory of Lie algebras and algebraic groups has been an area of active research in the last 50 years. It intervenes in many different areas of mathematics : for example invariant theory, Poisson geometry, harmonic analysis, mathematical physics. The aim of this book is to assemble in a single volume the algebraic aspects of the theory so as to present the foundation of the theory in characteristic zero. Detailed proofs are included and some recent results are discussed in the last chapters. All the prerequisites on commutative algebra and algebraic geometry are included.