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Buchdahl H.A. — The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics
Buchdahl H.A. — The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics



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Название: The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics

Автор: Buchdahl H.A.

Аннотация:

Thermodynamics is a branch of natural science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It states that the behavior of those variables is subject to general constraints, that are common to all materials, not the peculiar properties of particular materials. These general constraints are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics describes the bulk behavior of the body, not the microscopic behaviors of the very large numbers of its microscopic constituents, such as molecules. Its laws are explained by statistical mechanics, in terms of the microscopic constituents.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 1966

Количество страниц: 235

Добавлена в каталог: 09.02.2014

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
Absolute entropy      110
Absolute temperature      73 77 86ff 99
Absolute temperature, determination of      83ff
Absolute temperature, sign of      76ff 85
Absolute temperature, unattainability of zero      104ff 107 109
Accessibility      66f
Activity      211
Activity, coefficient      212
Additivity of energy      44 149
Additivity of entropy      74
Additivity of heat      45
Adiabatic      13
Adiabatic demagnetization      108 185
Adiabatic isolation      14 77
Adiabatic partition      14
Adiabatic transition      14 44
Adiabatics      70
Adjoint state      96
Advancement, degree of      129 202 206 215f
Algebraic equivalent      57 61 97
Ancillary law      42 69
Anti-catalyst      132
assumptions      5
Attainability of T = 0      104 106f
Availability of energy      91
Berthelot's equation      195
Black Box      117
Black-body radiation      141
Bose — Enstein gas      140
Boundary      119 148
Boyle temperature      176
Boyle's law      87
Calorimeter      48
Caratheodory's principle      68
Caratheodory's theorem      62
Chain      102
Characteristic function      114 124 174
Charles's law      87
chemical potential      122 200f 209
Chemical potential in ideal system      208
Chemical potential of ideal gaseous constituent      172
Chemical potential of real gaseous constituent      174
Chemical reactions      119ff 202f 205ff
Clapeyron — Clausius equation      179 181 183 186
Classification of      56ff
Clausius's equation      179
Clausius's inequality      90
Clausius's principle      89
Closed system      117 126
Closed transition      49 90
Coefficient of expansion      108 161 190
Coldness      31 48
Composite system      20
Compressibility      162
Concentration      124
Concept, meaning of      3f
Condition of insolubility      203
Conditions of equilibrium      126ff 132ff 150 197ff
Conditions of equilibrium for ideal gases      205ff
Conditions of equilibrium for ideal systems      208ff
Conditions of equilibrium for real gases      211ff
Conduction of heat      36 150ff
Configuration      9
Conjugate variables      116
Conservation laws      38f 50 82
Conservation of energy      5f 38ff
Constituent      119
Constituent, independent      203
Constitutive coordinates      119
Constitutive quantities      7
coordinates      9 141
Coordinates, constitutive      120
Coordinates, deformation      9 18 108 184 188
Coordinates, external      120
Coordinates, internal      120 125
Corresponding states      195
Cosmological theory      3 18
Covariance      18 40
Creation of entropy      83 154 176
Critical opalescence      197
Critical point      193
Curie's law      185 191
Deformation      6
Deformation, coordinate      9 18 108 184
Degree of advancement      129 202 206 215f
Degree of freedom      200 203
Demagnetization      108 185
Dependent reactions      208
Dewar flask      13
Diathermic      13
Diffusion      8 131 170ff
Dilute solution      208
Discontinuities, representation of      182
Dissociation, degree of      207
Distance between states      21ff 37 69
Efficiency      91
Ehrenfest's equations      180
Elastic systems      38 186ff
Empirical entropy (function)      70 83 94 97 102
Empirical temperature (function)      30 34ff 46f 83
Energy      5 18 38ff 41ff
Energy of ideal gas      85 137
Energy of real gases      173
Energy of van der Waals gas      174
Energy, additivity of      44 149
Energy, availability of      91
Energy, bounds of      46 82 106
Energy, conservation of      5f 38ff
Energy, continuity of      45
Energy, density of      39 151 188
Energy, flux      154
Energy, localization of      154f
Energy, surface      149
Enthalpy      113
Enthalpy, partial molar      210
entropy      68
Entropy of ideal gas      169
Entropy of ideal gas mixture      171
Entropy of mixing      172 177
Entropy of real gas      173
Entropy of real gas mixtures      174
Entropy of surface phase      149
Entropy of van der Waals gas      174
Entropy, absolute      110
Entropy, additivity of      74
Entropy, creation      83 154 176
Entropy, density      151 188
Entropy, determination of      83ff
Entropy, discontinuity of      180 183
Entropy, empirical      70 83 94 97 102
Entropy, flux      154
Entropy, localization of      154
Entropy, maximization of      132
Entropy, metrical      73 99
Entropy, molar      169 171
Entropy, principle (of increase of)      75ff 79ff 94f 97 99 117 130
Entropy, production      153 176
Entropy, pseudo-      131
Entropy, scale      71 87
Entropy, zero point      111f 215ff
Equations of state      33 162ff 178
Equations of state, empirical      163 194
Equilibrium      7ff 111 133
Equilibrium constants      206 208
Equilibrium constants, derivatives of      209f
Equilibrium constants, determination of      213ff
Equilibrium constants, explicit form of      210f
Equilibrium constants, ideal      209
Equilibrium, curve      179 180
Equilibrium, mechanical      28
Equilibrium, metastable      111
Equilibrium, relative      133f
Equilibrium, surface      186
Equilibrium, thermal      28
Equivalence class      101
Equivalence relation      101
Expansion, thermal      161 190
External coordinates      120
External state      120
Fermi — Dirac gas      140 191
First law of thermodynamics      40
First Law of Thermodynamics, substitute for      100
First-order phase transitions      178f
Fluctuations      16 155f 195
Fluctuations of energy      158
Fluctuations, frequency of      157
Fluctuations, simultaneous      158f
Flux, energy      154
Flux, energy, entropy      154
Force (generalized)      12
Free energy (Helmholtz)      115
Fugacity      212
Gas mixtures      170ff 176
Gas mixtures, entropy of      171
Gas mixtures, equilibrium of      207ff
Gas mixtures, Gibbs function of      172 174
Gas mixtures, pressure of      170 177
Gauge transformation      154
Gibbs function      113 123 126 145 150
Gibbs function of elastic systems      188
Gibbs function of ideal gas      169
Gibbs function of ideal gas mixture      172
Gibbs function of magnetic systems      180 184
Gibbs function of real gas mixture      174
Gibbs function, discontinuities of      179 183
Gibbs function, minimization of      134
Gibbs function, molar      170
Gibbs Phase Rule, for inert systems      199ff
Gibbs Phase Rule, for inert systems for active systems      202ff
Gibbs — Duhem identity      168f 201
Gibbs — Helmholtz equation      114
Glass      111
Gravitational field      143ff 196f
Grueneisen parameter      177
Grueneisen's Law      178 191
Hamilton's principle      130
Heat      43 49
Heat element      73
Heat of reaction      210 212 213
Heat of transformation      111 183
Heat Theorem (Nernst)      216
Heat, latent      179 181
Heat, specific      85 105 107 118 164 179 181 183 185 191 215
Heat, transfer of      48 152ff
Helium      182
Helmholtz free energy      115
Helmholtz function      113 135
Heterogeneous systems      125 193 197ff 210
Higher-order phase transitions      179ff
Hooke's law      189
Hotness      31 48 78
Hypersurface      21
Ideal gases      87 137ff 147 168 170 205 210
Ideal mixture      208
Ideal paramagnetic      191f
Ideal system      208 210
Image of state or transition      22 46 52
Impotence, laws of      50 82 110
Inacessibility      66ff 93ff
Independence of reactions      202 208
Independent constituents      203
Inequality of Clausius      90
Infinitesimal transition, n      23
Integrability      55ff 97
Integrability conditions      58 166ff
Integrability conditions, suffiency of      59f
Integrating denominator      58
Integrating factor      58 64
Intensive variable      169 200f
Internal coordinates      120 125
Internal energy function      41
Internal state      120
Inversion temperature      176
Irreversible transition      12 15 66 94 117 155
Isentropic      71 83 88 178
Isobaric coefficient of expansion      161
Isolation, adiabatic      14
Isometric pressure coefficient      162
Isometric transition      19 32
Isothermal compressibility      162
Isothermal transition      36
Isothermals      31
Joule expansion      174
Joule — Thomson expansion      175f
Kelvin's principle      89
Lambda-transition of He      105 182
Latent heat      179 181
Law of corresponding states      195
Law of equal areas      194
Law of Mass Action, one reaction      205ff
Law of Mass Action, one reaction for real gases      211ff
Law of Mass Action, one reaction, several reactions      207ff
Law of thermodynamics, Zeroth      29
Law of Thermodynamics, Zeroth, First      40
Law of Thermodynamics, Zeroth, Second      68 89 101
Law of Thermodynamics, Zeroth, Third      109
Law, meaning of      4f 38
Laws of conservation      38 50 82
Laws of impotence      50 82 110
Linear diffential form      25 55ff
Local temperature      36 151
Localization of physical quantities      154f
Lorentz transformations      141
Macro-state      16
Macroscopic systems      1
Magnetic systems      9 108 162 180f 184ff
Mass action      see "Law of Mass Action"
Maximization of entropy      132
Maxwell's law of equal areas      194
Maxwell's relations      167 185 188 190
Mean values      156
Mechanical equivalent of heat      49
Mechanical systems      1 5
Metalaw, meaning of      38
Metaphase144      148 188
Metastability      111f
Metrical entropy      73 99
Micro-state      16
Minimal set      9
Minimization of Gibbs function      134
Mixture, ideal      208
Mixture, ideal of ideal gases      170ff 205 213ff
Mixture, ideal of real gases      173f 176f
Modification of system      28 81 131f 149
Modified thermodynamic potentials      114
Molar Gibbs function      170
Mole      120
Mole number      120
Neighbourhood      22
Neighbouring state      23
Nernst heat theorem      216
Non-static transition      11
Notation      23ff 32 56 66 84 114 165
Nuclear spin system      79
Onsager's Principle      155
Open system      119
Operationalist principle      2
Order in time      15 93f
Ordering of states      93ff 101ff
Paramagnetic substances      184 191
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