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Pearl J. Ч Heuristics
Pearl J. Ч Heuristics

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Ќазвание: Heuristics

јвтор: Pearl J.

јннотаци€:

This book is about heuristics, popularly known as rules of thumb, educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense. In more precise terms, heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible though loosely applicable information to control problem-solving processes in human beings and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence (AI) and operations research (OR) to solve problems of search, reasoning, planning and optimization on digital machines.


язык: en

–убрика: –азное/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 1984

 оличество страниц: 382

ƒобавлена в каталог: 01.04.2006

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
$AO^*$ Algorithm      62Ч64 70 72 240 286
$A^*$ algorithm      62Ч64 71Ч85
$A^*$ algorithm definition      64
$A^*$ algorithm expected performance      140Ч150 169Ч193
$A^*$ algorithm properties      73Ч85
$A^*$ algorithm, admissibility of      77Ч78 85 106 111 164
$A^*$ algorithm, optimality of      85 107 111 112 206Ч207
$A^*$ algorithm, references for      70 110
$A^*$ algorithm, variations to      49 65 70 85Ч99 111 112 125 145
$BF^*$ algorithm      56 63 100 102Ч110 112 326
$GBF^*$ algorithm      54Ч55 63 72 100 102
$GBF^*$ algorithm, admissibility of      55
$R_\delta^*$ algorithm      90Ч97
$R_{\delta,\epsilon}^*$ algorithm      98
$SSS^*$ algorithm      240Ч245 281 287 326
$SSS^*$ algorithm, branching factor      304Ч306
$SSS^*$ algorithm, definition      243
$SSS^*$ algorithm, description      240Ч243
$SSS^*$ algorithm, example      244Ч245
$SSS^*$ algorithm, history of      286 325
$SSS^*$ algorithm, performance analysis      300Ч310 329Ч331
$SSS^*$ algorithm, relation to $\alpha-\beta$      3 301 306Ч310 325
$\beta$-bound      234 238 239
8-Puzzle      6 18 20 27 31 39 71 79 81 87 113 119 138 164
8-Queens      4 14 17 20 31 38
ABSTRIPS      29 131
Accuracy of heuristic estimates      53 79 87 91 145 149 169 170 334 351
Acosta, A.      349
Add list, in STRIPS      119
Admissibility, of search algorithms      75 86 105 162 194 331 see
Admissibility, of search algorithms, $\epsilon$-admissibility      88Ч91 104Ч106 111 128 164
Admissibility, of search algorithms, of $AO^*$      62
Admissibility, of search algorithms, of $A^*$      77Ч78 106 111 164
Admissibility, of search algorithms, of $GBF^*$      55 78
Admissibility, of search algorithms, relaxation-based      11
Admissibility, of search algorithms, risk admissibility      94Ч99 112
Admissibility, of search algorithms, set-splitting proof of      55 62 78
Admissible heuristics      77 113 169Ч193
Air-distance heuristic      9 114 140 145 163
Alpha bound      233 238
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games      231Ч239 287
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, branching factor      269 296Ч298
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, definition      234
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, expected performance      235 293Ч299 307Ч310
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, for computing quantiles      277
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, for searching flow trees      281 287
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, history of      273 286 293Ч294
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, influence-analysis view of      235Ч239
Alpha-Beta $(\alpha-\beta)$ procedure, for games, pruning power of      235 298Ч299
Amarel, S.      31 70
Analogical models      117Ч118
Ancestor nodes      34
AND links      22 26Ч27 222
AND nodes      25
AND/OR graphs and trees      19 22Ч32
AND/OR graphs and trees to represent games      26 32 222Ч223 279
AND/OR graphs and trees, best-first search of (GBF, $GBF^*$)      49Ч56 53 240Ч245
AND/OR graphs and trees, cost of solutions      50Ч54 57Ч58
AND/OR graphs and trees, cycles in      46
AND/OR graphs and trees, definition      22
AND/OR graphs and trees, examples      23Ч24 30 47 223 279
AND/OR graphs and trees, labeling procedures for      51 58Ч60
AND/OR graphs and trees, node selection in      53Ч54
AND/OR graphs and trees, uninformed search of      44Ч46
AO Algorithm      62Ч63
Approximate-optimization      15 90Ч99 129 154
Arcs      33
Arratia, R.      163
Artificial intelligence (AI)      4 19 137
Assignment problem      11 31 115 176 210
Asymptotic optimality      260 264 270
Attractors      322 325 352
Averbach, B.      56
Backed-up values      58 60 227 332
Backmarking      40
Backtracking      36 40 65 71 121 190 230
Backtracking definition      40
Backtracking illustration      42
Backtracking in AND/OR graphs      45Ч47
Backtracking, analysis      190Ч192
Backtracking, informed      40 42 190
Backtracking, references for      69
Backtracking, variations of      40Ч42 66 69 152 162
Bagchi, A.      Ill 194
Bahl, L.R.      71
Ball, M.      163
Banerji, R.B.      31 131
Barr, A.      86 111 227 286
Baudet, G.M.      269 294 296 325
Beal, D.      333 349
Bellman, R.      69
Bellmore, M.      81
Berlekamp, E.R.      31
Berliner, H.J.      285 359
Bernoulli theorem      126Ч127
Best-first strategies      46Ч56 63 65 111 112 240 326
Best-first strategies for AND/OR graphs      49 240
Best-first strategies for OR graphs      48Ч49 72
Best-first strategies, generalized      50Ч51 99Ч110
Best-first strategies, provisions for optimality      54Ч55
Best-first strategies, specialized      61Ч65
BF algorithm      74 87
BF algorithm, definition      48
BF algorithm, relation to GBF      55 63
Bidirectional search      70
Blind (uninformed) search      34 36Ч46
Bounding functions      10 31 70
Bramson, M.D.      163 167
Branch-and-bound      19 31 55 70 131 286
Branching degree      33 318 324
Branching factor      259
Branching processes, applications      155Ч161 284
Branching processes, definition and properties      154Ч155 165Ч167
Branching processes, nonhomogeneous      173
Bratko, I.      349
Breadth-first strategies      42Ч44 65 69 141
Brudno, A.L.      286
Bursky, P.      70
C-bounded paths      112
Campbell, M.S.      310
Capacity (in flow trees)      280Ч285 326
Carbonell, J.G.      118
Chang, C.L.      70
Characteristic distribution, for games      289 297 304 325 328
Cheapest-first      44 see
Chein, O.      31
CLOSED list      34 37
Closed nodes      34
Closed nodes, reopening of      49 72 76 82 111 194
Clusters of strategies      240
codes      see also Representations
Codes for solutions      15 23 26 29
Codes for subsets      16 18Ч21 49 240
Combining rules (or functions)      13 57 58 227 359Ч360
Commutativity      35 123
Completeness      16 19 75Ч77 99 103
Connectors, in hypergraphs      25
Consistent (monotone) heuristics      82Ч85 111 148
Consistent (monotone) heuristics and reopening closed nodes      83
Consistent (monotone) heuristics and the optimality of $A^*$      85 107 111 112
Consistent (monotone) heuristics produced by relaxed models      115 131 140
Consistent (monotone) heuristics relation to admissibility      83 111
Constraint-satisfaction problems      4 14 21 31 69
control strategies      13 16 20 34
Conway, J.      31
Cost labeling      58Ч60 99 102
Cost measures, of paths, max-cost      34 58 62 99 101 281
Cost measures, of paths, median      57 76
Cost measures, of paths, mode      99
Cost measures, of paths, multiplicative      99
Cost measures, of paths, nonadditive      57 61 99 102
Cost measures, of paths, range      72 99 101
Cost measures, of paths, recursive      100
Cost measures, of paths, sum-cost      34 58 61 62 74 151
Cost, of arcs      34
Counterfeit coin problem      12 19 22 26 31 32 38 59 72 133
Cutoffs, in game searching, conditions for      238 295
Cutoffs, in game searching, deep and shallow      233 294
Darling, D.A.      168
Database      16 20
De Champeaux, B.      70
Deadends      6 18 31 37
Debiasing heuristics      106 203 205 213
Debiasing heuristics, optimal way of      205 210
Dechter, R.      85 107 110 111 171 175 176 177 180 181
Decomposability      121Ч124
Degree of a node      33
DeGroot, M.H.      325
Delayed termination      54Ч56 62 63
Delete list, in STRIPS      119
Deo, N.      69
Depth of anode      37 39 88 164
Depth of search      188 227 333
Depth-bound      37
Depth-first search      36Ч42 65 151 160 230 260 266
Depth-first search in graphs      39 44
Depth-first search, definition      37
Depth-first search, examples      38 230
Depth-first search, informed version of      38 67 190
descendant nodes      34
DeWitt, H.K.      163
Dijkstra, E.W.      69
Directed search      see Informed search
Directional search algorithms      260 265
Dixon, J.K.      269 286 294
Dominance between algorithms      75 81 85 112 199Ч202 209 249 301
Dominance, pruning by      21
Dominance, stochastic      176Ч179
Doran, J.      31 70 120
Dreyfus, S.E.      61 69 102
Durrett, R.      177
Dynamic ordering      286
Dynamic programming      60 69 76 102
Dynamic weighting      88 105 213
Eastman, W.L.      31
Edges, in graphs      33 52
Edmonds, J.      31
Edwards, D.J.      286
Elliot, G.L.      31 69
Ernst, G.W.      122 123 131
Error propagation, in minimaxing      333Ч346
Errors, $\phi$-normalized      184
Errors, effects on search complexity      145 169Ч217
Errors, order of      184 189 205 213
Errors, overestimation      195 199Ч202
Errors, proportional      179Ч183 205 210 211
Errors, subproportional      186Ч189 193 205 207
Euclidean distance      9 114
Evaluation functions      35 48 50 56 60 70 102 226
Evaluation functions, additive      99 101
Evaluation functions, examples of      6Ч13
Evaluation functions, nonadditive      99Ч110
Evaluation functions, optimistic      11 55 62 70 72
Evaluation functions, order-preserving      100Ч102
Evaluation functions, path-dependent      100 102 112
Evaluation functions, recursive      56Ч65
Evaluation functions, static      227 334
Evaluation functions, weighted      87 106 145 202 210 213
Exhaustive search      7 229
Expanding nodes      34 36
Expanding nodes by $SSS^*$      244
Explicated graphs      49 75 101
Exploring nodes      34
Extinct family, size      154 164 166Ч167 183
Extinction probability      165
Face-value principle      53 60 86 227 332
Fallible opponent      357Ч358
Feigenbaum, E.R.      86 111 227 286
Feller, W.      125 175
FIFO search strategies      42
Fikes, R.E.      29 31 119
Filtering argument, in games      332
Fisher, M.L.      131
Flow trees      281 326
Floyd, R.W.      31
Forney, G.D.      71
Forward checking      31 286
Fuller, S.H.      239 294 298
Funt, B.V.      118
Galileo, G.      138
Game trees      222
Game trees, nonuniform      318Ч322 351
Game-playing strategies      222Ч226
Game-playing strategies, quality of      58 240
Games as problem-solving laboratory      4 221
Games, books about      31
Games, decision quality in      227 332Ч361
Games, duality with mazes      277Ч285
Games, evaluating      268
Games, examples of      32 270 273
Games, mathematical models of      251Ч259 270Ч273 318Ч322
Games, perfect information      222 225
Games, searching of      231Ч250 271Ч272
Games, size considerations      226 293 299
Games, solving      224 230 259
Games, value of      60 226Ч227 255 322
Gams, M.      349
Gardner, M.      31 254
Garey, M.R.      10
Gaschnig, J.      31 40 69 87 120 131 137 163 170 171 179 183 239 294 298
GBF algorithm      50Ч51 63
GBF algorithm, example of applying      52Ч54
GBF algorithm, relations to BF      55 63
Gelperin, D.      111
Generate-and-test paradigm      19 31
Generating nodes      34 40
Geoffrion, A.M.      131
Ghallab, M.      Ill
Gillogly, J.J.      239 294 298
Goal nodes      6 74
GODDESS      29
Golden ratio      254
Golden, B.      163
Goldstein, M.M.      123 131
GPS      29 122 124
Graph notation      33 73
Greedy algorithms      36 120Ч121 123
Guida, G.      131
Guided search      see Informed search
Guy, R.K.      31
Haralick, R.M.      31 69
HARPY      163
Harris, L.R.      90 111
Harris, T.      154 155 165
Hart, P.E.      63 70 110 111
Hart, T.P.      286
Hays, W.L.      126
Held, M.      11 31 131
Heuristics as sources of noisy signals      47 169Ч171
Heuristics definition      3 53
Heuristics in constraint-satisfaction problems      5
Heuristics in game playing      227
Heuristics in path-seeking problems      6Ч12 48 64
Heuristics in strategy-seeking problems      12Ч13 50 63
Heuristics, admissible      77
Heuristics, consistent (monotone)      82Ч85
Heuristics, mechanical generation of      118Ч124
Heuristics, origin      113Ч115
Heuristics, power of      73 79 139Ч140 144
Heuristics, probability-based      117 124Ч131
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