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Fletcher H. Ч Speech and Hearing in Communication
Fletcher H. Ч Speech and Hearing in Communication

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Ќазвание: Speech and Hearing in Communication

јвтор: Fletcher H.


Stemming from the great volume of research done in this field at the Bell telephone laboratories, this book is the developed logically from a single general problem. If a talker (T) of described characteristics speaks into a transmission system S of described characteristics, how well will a listener recognize the sounds spoken at T? To provide the great range of information needed to enable the reader to deal properly with this problem, this book deals with three issues: 1. A fundamental description of the speaking process and the speech waves created by talking as well as the methods of describing the Talker (T). 2. The hearing process in the methods of describing the listener. 3. The interaction of the Talker (T) and the system (S) and the Listener. Thoroughly revised and substantially rewritten, this new second edition brings every phase of the subject up-to-date. For example, Chapter 14, the space-time pattern of hearing is entirely new, and gives a mathematical treatment of the dynamics of the hearing process. The results of this analysis are in the excellent agreement with the epochmaking experimental results of Bekesg, and mark a significant milestone in our understanding of the mechanism of hearing. This book appeals to those interested primarily in speech, such as teachers of speech and phonetic experts, to those interested chiefly in hearing such as otologists, audiologists and workers and hearing clinics, and to those interested in many applications of the subject, such as electrical, communications and radio engineers. Illustrated with charts, diagrams and graphs.

язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

 оличество страниц: 472

ƒобавлена в каталог: 19.05.2013

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ѕредметный указатель
Acoustic line spectra of vowel sounds      51Ч54
Acoustic line spectra, definition of      50
Acoustic line spectra, effect of pitch on      53Ч54
Acoustical Society of America      283
Acoustical speech powers      68Ч88
Acoustical speech powers, definitions      68Ч70
Adam's apple      19
Air condenser, rotary      146Ч149
Alphabet of International Phonetic Association      1
Alternating current (a-c) components      6
Alternation phonometer      181
American Medical Association      122 446
American Standards Association      70 177 308 427
Amplifiers, vacuum tube      68
Analyzer, Henrici      71
Analyzer, Level      72Ч77
Anderson, A.B.      290
Angular localization      220 221 222Ч224 228
Anvil (ossicle)      106
Aperiodic sounds      15 16
Arnold, H.D.      216
Articulation scores      318Ч414
Articulation scores, $K_{m}$, $\alpha$, a, and $\mathfrak{F}$      348Ч351
Articulation scores, acknowledgments      401
Articulation scores, applications      394Ч401
Articulation scores, charts, instructions for using      376Ч381
Articulation scores, charts, systems with no noise      362Ч365 376Ч378
Articulation scores, charts, systems with noise      366Ч376 378Ч381
Articulation scores, data for ideal system      339Ч341
Articulation scores, distortion      351Ч361
Articulation scores, distortion, carbon microphone      356Ч361
Articulation scores, distortion, due to frequency shift      352
Articulation scores, distortion, due to overloading      354Ч356
Articulation scores, distortion, due to reverberation, in sending and receiving rooms      352Ч354
Articulation scores, effect of noise on      341Ч351
Articulation scores, effective gain $x_{v}$      319Ч324
Articulation scores, F factor, calculation of      333Ч334
Articulation scores, F factor, masking effect on      329Ч332
Articulation scores, F factor, maximum      326Ч328
Articulation scores, F factor, noise present      345Ч347
Articulation scores, functions $\phi$ and $\gamma$, determination of      334Ч339
Articulation scores, H factor, due to noise      348Ч351
Articulation scores, hearing loss for speech      413Ч414
Articulation scores, index A      318
Articulation scores, loudness functions $G_{1}$ and $G_{4}$      401Ч413
Articulation scores, noise present      341Ч351 344Ч345
Articulation scores, noise present, F factor      345Ч347
Articulation scores, noise present, V and E factors      344Ч345
Articulation scores, observed and calculated articulation vs. grain curves, comparisons      382Ч394
Articulation scores, V and E, determination of      324Ч326
Articulation scores, V and E, noise present      344Ч345
Articulation vs. intensity level      415Ч418
Articulation, consonant      278 418
Articulation, crews, talking levels and proficiency factors of      313Ч317
Articulation, definition of      278
Articulation, fricatives      422
Articulation, index and values, relation between      280Ч300
Articulation, index, calculation of      425Ч430 433
Articulation, measurement of      278Ч302
Articulation, semivowels      421
Articulation, sentence      299
Articulation, sentence, intelligibility list      300Ч301
Articulation, sound      278 279 280
Articulation, syllable      278 279 280
Articulation, tests      279Ч280 315Ч317
Articulation, vowel      278 416 418Ч422
Artificial deafness      424
Artificial ear      120
Audiofrequency spectra      16
Audiograms, deafness      424
Audiograms, determination of, in compensation cases      442
Audiograms, hearing acuity expressed as      136
Audiograms, masking      204Ч208
Audiograms, noise      201Ч209
Audiometer      442
Audiometer, 2A      122Ч123
Audiometer, phonograph (Western Electric 4A)      139Ч140
Audiometer, proposed standard      122Ч123
Audiometer, tone range      121Ч125 132 135
Audiometer, use in measuring hearing      119Ч143
Auditory area      134
Auditory masking      see "Masking"
Auditory meatus      106 107
Auditory nerve      107
Auditory nerve, action      112Ч118
Auditory nerve, tract, diagram of      268 274
Auditory perspective      217Ч229
Auditory perspective, conclusions re      228Ч229
Auditory perspective, effects of quality      228
Auditory perspective, experimental verification of theory      226Ч228
Auditory perspective, localization      see "Localization"
Auditory perspective, multichannel systems      218Ч221
Auditory perspective, transition systems that preserve      217Ч218
Average speech power      68 71 76Ч78
Azimuth, M.A.F. vs.      128Ч143
Basilar membrane      107 108 109 110 111 151 173 174 233 293
Basilar membrane and inner ear canals      235Ч236
Basilar membrane, relation between vibration and nerve stimulation on      259Ч263
Basilar membrane, space-time theory of hearing      235Ч244 246 249 251Ч258 273 274
Beats for measuring differential intensity sensitivity      144Ч145
Beats, binaural      214Ч216
Beats, objective      214 216 275Ч276
Beats, subjective      160 161 162 214 276
Beck, C.J.      83
Bedell, E.H.      123
Bekesy, G.V.      132 172 184 230 232 237 240 251Ч256 262 273
Beranek, L.L.      68 120
Bessels functions      243
Biddulph, R.      146
Binaural hearing effects      210Ч216 230
Binaural hearing effects, beats      214Ч216
Binaural hearing effects, due to changes in phase and intensity of sound      210Ч213
Binaural hearing effects, listening      178
Binaural hearing effects, location of complex-sounds      213Ч214
Binaural hearing effects, masking      153 154
Binaural hearing effects, threshold, measurement of      127Ч128
Binaural hearing effects, transmission system      217
Bone conduction      159
Bone conduction receiver      149 150
Bony labyrinth      106
Boston, M.E.E.I. hospital      431
Brain tumor      274Ч275
Bray, C.W.      109
Breathing to phonation, transition from      20
Brownian movements      231
Bureau of Standards      120 122 123 133
Buzzertone      8
Calibrated microphones      68
Calibrated microscope      239 251
Calibrating the receiver, methods of      120Ч121
Calibration, proposed standard      122
Carbon microphone, distortion      356Ч361
Carbon microphone, electrical noise      100
Carter, C.W.      92 280 305
Castner, T.G.      280
Cavities, nose and throat      3 5 49
Chest, part of, used in speech      7
Christensen, J.W.      100
Churcher Ч King Ч Davies      191
Cochlea      109 231 233
Cochlea, description of      107Ч108
Cochlea, dynamics of      235Ч263
Cochlea, uncoiled, in Cochlear potentials      109Ч110
Compensation cases, computation of hearing loss in      442Ч447
Compensation cases, computation of percent loss      445
Compensation cases, determination of, audiogram      442
Compensation cases, determination of, effective loss, using both ears      442Ч443
Compensation cases, determination of, percent hearing loss      443Ч444
Compensation cases, determination of, weighted average percent loss      444
Compensation cases, Fletcher method      446
Compensation cases, Fowler plan      446 447
Compensation cases, relation of compensation to percent loss      445Ч447
Component tones, loudness levels of      195Ч201
Components, frequency and magnitude of      178
Condenser, rotary air      146Ч149
Conductive deafness      137 424 437 438
Consonants, combined characteristics      87
Consonants, Crandall's study of, b vs. p      61 63
Consonants, Crandall's study of, d vs. t      63
Consonants, Crandall's study of, g vs. k      63 65
Consonants, Crandall's study of, j vs. ch      65
Consonants, Crandall's study of, th vs. th      64 65
Consonants, Crandall's study of, v vs. f      65
Consonants, Crandall's study of, z vs. s      67
Consonants, Crandall's study of, zh vs. sh      65 67
Consonants, duration of      61Ч67
Consonants, fricatives      see "Fricatives"
Consonants, intensity range of      86
Consonants, power      84 86
Consonants, sensation level      85
Consonants, spectrograms of      60 61
Consonants, stop      1 2 4 64
Consonants, stop, nazalized      5
Consonants, unvoiced      1 2 4
Consonants, voiced      1 2 4
Continuants      5
Conversational speech      15
Conversational speech, articulation tests for intensities used in      415Ч419
Conversational speech, differentiated from written speech      96
Conversational speech, peak powers in      77 80
Conversational speech, telephone, analysis of      92Ч96
Conversational speech, typical values in      83
Cord tone      58
Cord tone, modulation of      5
Corti, organ of      108 109
Cough, pictures of production of      23Ч24
Coupler calibrations      120
Crandall, I.B.      29 58 59
Cut-off frequency, articulation for fricatives, vs.      422
Cut-off frequency, articulation for semivowels, vs.      421
Cut-off frequency, articulation for short vowels, vs.      418Ч422
Davis, Hallowell      112 114 134 230 425 427 430
Deafness      see also "Hearing loss"
Deafness of children      282
Deafness, articulation tests, systems used in      430Ч441
Deafness, artificial      424
Deafness, audiograms      424Ч426
Deafness, causes of      424
Deafness, compensation cases      442Ч447
Deafness, conductive      137 424 437 438
Deafness, effect on articulation      424Ч441
Deafness, mixed      424 435 436
Deafness, nerve      137 424 438 439
Deafness, temporary      134
Deafness, total      443
Deafness, unilateral      158Ч159
Decibel, intensity level      70
Decibel, use in acoustical work      134
Depth localization, factors affecting      221Ч222 229
Dewey, Godfrey      89Ч91
Difference tones      235
Difference tones, definition of      160
Differential intensity sensitivity, data on      144Ч145
Dimock, P.V.      306 357
Diphthongs      1 2
Diphthongs, formation of      4
Direct-current (d-c) flow      6
Disc, noise from      101
Distortion, carbon microphone      356Ч361
Distortion, due to different reproducing and recording speeds      351
Distortion, due to frequency shift      352
Distortion, due to overloading      354Ч356
Distortion, due to reverberation in sending and receiving rooms      352Ч354
Distortion, effects of, on individual speech sounds      415Ч423
Distortion, filter      418Ч422
Dudley, H.W.      8
Dunn, H.K.      3 72 76 304 305 413
Duration of speech sounds      58Ч67
Ear, artificial      120
Ear, body of liquid in      111
Ear, canal      106
Ear, differential sensitivity of      144
Ear, hair cells of      108Ч110
Ear, inner      106Ч110
Ear, inner, parts of      107 235
Ear, inner, size of parts      111
Ear, middle      106 110
Ear, middle, openings into      107
Ear, outer      106
Ear, parts of      106Ч111
Ear, parts of, diagrams      107 108 109
Ear, parts of, use in sensing sound      117Ч118
Ear, pinna      106
Ear, tolerance to sound      133Ч134
Eardrum      106 110 111 231 232
Eardrum, external      232
Eardrum, minimum audible pressures at      119
Eardrum, secondary      107
Egan, J.P.      303
Electric shock, and muscle contraction      114
Electrical circuit for measuring average power-frequency distribution of sounds      71 72
Electrical circuit for measuring peak power-frequency distribution of sounds      72
Endolymphatic duct and sac      106
Epiglottis      19
European Standards Association      177
Eustachian tube      107
Falsetto mechanism      21 22 23
Farnsworth, D.W.      17 76 304
Fenestra ovalis      107
Fenestra rotunda      107
Film, noise from      101
Filter distortion on speech sounds      418Ч422
Firestone, F.A.      191 193
Fletcher, H.      133 142 192 241 278 309 413
Foot plate (of stirrup)      106
Formants      5 7 10 20
Fowler, E.P.      446 447
French, N.R.      92 290 308 357
Frequency of occurrence of parts of speech      92
Frequency of occurrence of phonetic sounds      94Ч96
Frequency of occurrence of speech sounds      89 91
Frequency of occurrence of syllable combinations      89 90 91
Frequency of occurrence of words      89 90 91
Frequency vs. distance from stapes      240
Frequency, critical bands of, determination of      171
Frequency, distribution in speech, analyses of      52Ч57
Frequency, fractional changes in      144
Frequency, fundamental (cord tone)      58
Frequency, level, minimum perceptible changes in      144Ч152
Frequency, ranges in speech      52Ч67 88
Frequency, regions      5
Frequency, shift, distortion due to      352
Frey, A.R.      243
Frey, T.C.      212 213
Fricatives      1 2 66
Fricatives, articulation for, vs. cut-off frequency      422
Fricatives, formation of      5
Fricatives, pitch of      54 56
Fricatives, unvoiced      4
Fricatives, voiced      4
Fundamental melodic stream, definition of      54
Galambos, R.      112 114 230
Galt, R.H.      278 290 293
Gardner, M.B.      312
Geiger, P.H.      191 193
Glottis      4 7 9 16 20 23
Goodale, W.D., Jr.      397
Gray, C.H.G.      123
Green, C.W.      10
Guild, S.R.      174
1 2 3
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