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Название: Stochastic theory of nonlinear rate processes with multiple stationary states. II. Relaxation time from a metastable state
Авторы: Matsuo K., Lindenberg K., Shuler K.E.
We have developed a methodology for obtaining a Fokker-Planck equation for nonlinear systems with multiple stationary states that yields the correct system size dependence, i.e., exponential growth with system size of the relaxation time from a metastable state. We show that this relaxation time depends strongly on the barrier heightU(x) between the metastable and stable states of the system. For a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation to yield the correct result for the relaxation time from a metastable state, it is therefore essential that the free energy functionU(x) of the FP equation not only correctly locate the extrema of U(x), but also have the correct magnitudeU at these extrema. This is accomplished by so choosing the coefficients of the FP equation that its stationary solution is identical to that of the master equation that defines the nonlinear system.