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Schank R.C. — Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People
Schank R.C. — Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People

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Название: Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People

Автор: Schank R.C.

Аннотация:

Roger Schank's influential book, Dynamic Memory (CUP 1982), described how computers could learn based on what was known about how people learn. Since that book's publication, Dr. Schank has turned his focus from artificial intelligence to human intelligence. Dynamic Memory Revisited contains the theory of learning presented in the original book, extending it to provide principles for teaching and learning, and includes Dr. Schank's important theory of case-based reasoning and assesses the role of stories in human memory. Dynamic Memory Revisited is crucial reading for all who are concerned with education and school reform. It draws attention to how effective learning takes place and provides instruction for developing software that truly helps students learn.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Computer science/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 1982

Количество страниц: 234

Добавлена в каталог: 09.12.2005

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
"Commodity unavailable"      119 121
"Provide no opposition"      72 73
"Provide opposition"      73
"Utilize power"      73 111 118
A-goals      91
abandonment      136
Abbott, V.      148
Abelson, R.      3 4 6 24 27 29 30 32 37 40 52 65 80 81 91 92 99 104 120 144 173 223
Abstract scene types      145
Abstraction      4 8 81 149 154 161 220 221
Abstraction, high-level      11
Action units (AU)      198
Adams, N.      3
Alteration of a specific expectation      136
Alteration scripts      131 132
Alternative beliefs      51 53 54 56
artificial intelligence      2 22 149 225
Bargaining      187—189 193 194
Beliefs      79 206
Black, J.      10 82 148
Bower, G.      3 10 11 82 223
Buchanan, B.      22
Carbonell, J.      4 32
Charniak, E.      112 128
Children      80 129 225
Children, expectation      143
Children, goal      143
Coloring      13 16 86 88 95 105 108 170 171 179
Competition goal      116 119 160—162 164
Compromise solution      116 119 160 162 163 167
Conceptual Dependency      3 135
Conditional outcomes      72
Content frame-search      179
Crisis goal      121
Cross-contextual reminding      113
Cross-indexing      209
Crowder, R.      19
Cullingford, R.      2 3 6 40
Customer queueing      89
CyFr      217
Cyrus      207 215 217
Data base      217 218
Data structures      10
Davis, R.      22
DeJong, G.      2 7 128 217
Dictionary-based reminding      25—27
Discriminability      210
Dyer, M.      2
Dynamic memory      1 2 4 11 14 19 21 23 196 224 225
Dynamic memory structures      23
Episode      20—26 32 36 38—40 43 44 65 73 90 98 108 128 151 164 181 182 187 207 208 222
Episodic memory      19—21 23 25 27 39 47 64 65 177 190 197
Episodic Memory Organization Packets (E-MOP)      207—210 212—216 218 222
Episodic Memory Organization Packets (E-MOP), creation      213
Error explanations      54—56
Error-based failure      54
Evil intent      68 111 121
Expectation failure      14 28 32 45 46 48 51 52 61—63 89 103 108 127 131 133—136 139 140 142 146 147 155 158 163 170 171—176 186 187 189 191 192 195 224
Expectation modification      131 132
Expectation modification, scene-based      147
Expectational information      68
Expectations      24 26 27 29 32 33 40 52 68 76 80 102 128 129 139 146 147
Expert      22
Expert system      22 225
expertise      101 108
Explanation, goal-based      30
Explanation, theme-based      30
Failure-driven memory      37 46 60 75
Failure-driven memory, reminding      46 47 66 71 75
Failure-explanation      62
Feigenbaum, E.      22
Focus problem      128 130
Frame-based system      112
FRUMP      7 8 105 217 225
General knowledge structures      9
General structures      9
Generalization      2 4 8 10 23 31 32 36 42 44—46 60 62 63 81 101 105 106 120 127 128 134 140 145 148 149 152—154 171 194 197—199 201—206 214—216 218 219 222 223
Generalization, refinement      214
Generalized scenes      168—171
Generalized scenes, building      167
Goal      25 32 34 48 52 64 65 68 69 71 72 74 92 96 98 103 105 106 113 124 125 129 133 139 157—160 187 188
Goal, blockage      32
Goal, collection      147
Goal, competition      32
Goal, directed behavior      67
Goal, failure      32
Goal, pursuit      122
Goal, related      33
Goal, replacement      32
Goal, subsumption failures      30 31
Goal, tracking      31 32
Goal-based analysis      30
Goal-based analysis, expectation      147
Goal-based analysis, physical scene      147
Goal-based analysis, processing      30 65
Goal-based analysis, reminding      30—32
Gordon, S.      3
Graesser, A.      3
Granger, R.      7 46
Gruendel, K.      3 80
Hendrix, G.      182
High level context      68
High level context, goals      98
High level context, knowledge source      5
High level context, knowledge structures      6 8 43 48 51 52 104 128 129
High level context, memory structures      4 14 112 122
High level context, structures      4 5 16 33 43 67 80 81 84 85
Imperialism      111 112
Imperialism, definition      112
Index generations      178 179
Indexing      22 28 31 32 35 42 46 66 71 73 79 88 105 112 114 117 133 146 151 158 159 162 164 165 168 170 171 174—176 180 182 189 191 194 199 207—210 212 213 216 218
Indexing, expectation failures      131 132
Indexing, scripts      88
Initial generalization      214
Instrumental action      86
Instrumental action, goal      86
Integrated Partial Parsing (IPP)      197—199 201—206
Intentional planning aids      62
Intentional planning aids, reminding      63
Intentional reminding      34 35 116
Intermediate-term memory      12
Jebousek, S.      3
jokes      25 34 47
Knowledge packets      8
Knowledge-based self-organizing memory      207
Kolodner, J.      115 207 213 217
Kowalski, D.      3
Language      2 3
Learning      4 22 36 46 53 60—62 75 110 119 128 134 153 157 171 222 224
Lebowitz, M.      115 197 198 201 205
Lehnert, W.      2 46
Long-term memory      12—14 206
MAP      182
McCartney, K.      3
Memory confusion      157
Memory confusion, levels of      12
Memory organization packets      83 199 201 203—206
Memory organization structures      15 16 25 36 51 56
Memory reconstructive      13
Memory reconstructive, search      36
Memory reconstructive, structures      10 11 14 19 20 25 26 28 30 81 83 87 88 90 102 106 135 140 143 148 161 176—179 181 191 192 197 198 209 223 224
Memory-based processing      2
Mental dictionaries      25
Meta-MOPs      99 100 103 104 107—109 128
Meta-MOPs, creation      132
Minsky, M.      128
Mop      83—87 90—93 95 97 99—102 104—110 113 128—130 132 135 142 144 147—149 151 155 159 166 167 176 177 179 187—190 194 197 209 212 216 223 225
MOP, creation      132
MOP-based expectation failure      135 136
MOP-based failure      136
Morals      34
Motivational explanations      54 56 58
Multiple indexing      122
Mutual goal      111
Mutual goal, pursuit      94
Mutual goal, pursuit against outside opposition      71
Named plans      92
Natural language processing      10
Nelson, K.      3 80
Newell, A.      177
Nilsson, N.      177
Non-initiated goal expectations      173
Non-initiated goal frustrations      173
Norman, D.      59 114 185
Outcome-driven reminding      67 69 73 75 111
Outcome-related failure      75
Outside opposition      111 165 167
PAM      4 5 225
Personal MOP      97 130 193—195
Personal MOP, scene      97 143 146 178
Personal MOP, scene definition      97
Personal MOP, script      80 128 131
Personal MOP, script-building      128 130 131
Physical MOP      86 97 98 109 130 193
Physical MOP, definition      95
Physical MOP, scene      95 96 138 143 144
Place-holders      87
Plan-based reminding      32
plans      6 25 32 33 48 52 64 67
Plans, application      5
Plans, failures      58
POLITICS      4 225
Possession goal      48 111 120 121
Prediction failures      56 60
Prediction failures, outcomes      63 75
Processing structures      67 81 83
Processing-based reminding      25 27 29
prototypes      101
PTRANS      85
Question-answering      46
Quillian, M.      182
Re-evaluation of expectation      140
Reconstructive memory      13 83 90 91 94
Relational information      68
Reminding      20—24 27 29 31—33 36 38 42 45 48 60 62 79 105 136 176 186 187 189 191 192 213
Reminding, types of      25
Reorganization      136
Replacement structure      136
Riesbeck, C.      8
Rosch, E.      148
S-MOP      198 199 201 202
Sacerdoti, E.      177
SAM      3 5—7 105 225
Satisfaction goal      121
Sawyer, J.      3
Scene      15 16 40 42 44 74 84 86 95 105 106 128 129 148 168 171 172 178—181 187 191 194 195 219
Scene-based expectations      147
Scene-script relationship      139
Schank, R.      3 4 6 24 27 29 30 32 35 37 40 52 59 65 78 80 81 85 91 92 99 104 114 115 120 144 165 173 182 185 207 213 223
Script      3 5—11 23—25 27 29 34 38 39 42 45 52 64 82 84 86 95 100 106 128 129 133 138 151 170 171 179 223
Script, application      3—5 40
Script, definition      7
Script, personal      6
Script, situational      6
Script-based explanations      49
Script-based explanations, memory      9
Script-based explanations, processing      6 23
Script-based explanations, reminding      39 45 46
Script-based explanations, theory      85
Search      15 158 177 181
Search, map      181 182
Search, reconstructive      180
Short-term memory      12
Simple memory organization packets      198 199 206
Sketchy scripts      8
Smith, D.      3
Smith, E.      3
Societal MOP      86 97 109 130 145 193
Societal scenes      96 138 143 146 178
Societal scenes, definition      96
Spec-MOP      199 201 202
Specific structures      9
Static information      68
Structure-exemplification      62
Sub-MOP      213—216 218
Subscene      42
Suckering      60 185 186 190 191
Suckering, experience      59
Thematic Organization Packet (TOP)      68 70—73 94 110—118 121 159 163 165 166 177 189 190 195 225
Thematic Organization Packet (TOP), indexing      159 166
Thematic organization points      111
Theme      48 65
TOP-based reminding      114
tracks      6 7 39 42 82
Turner, T.      10 82
Understanding, meaning of      24
Universal MOP      148 150—152 157 167—169 220
Universal scenes      148—152 154 157 167 221
Visually-based reminding      26 27
Wilensky, R.      2 4 30 32
Woll, S.      3
Yale University      2 5
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