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Название: A new hierarchy system on the basis of a “Master” Boltzmann equation for microscopic density
Авторы: Shunichi Tsug'e, Kenshi Sagara
It is shown that Boltzmann's equation written in terms of microscopic density (namely the unaveraged Boltzmann function) has a wider range of validity as well as finer resolvability for fluctuations than the conventional Boltzmann equation governing Boltzmann's function. In fact the new Boltzmann equation for ideal gases has implications as a microscopically exact continuity equation like Klimontovich's equation for plasmas, and can be derived without invoking any statistical concepts, e.g., distribution functions, or molecular chaos. The Boltzmann equation in the older formalism is obtained by averaging this equation only under a restricted condition of the molecular chaos. The new Boltzmann equation is seen to contain information comparable with Liouville's equation, and serves as a master kinetic equation. A new hierarchy system is formulated in a certain parallelism to the BBGKY hierarchy. They are shown to yield an identical one-particle equation. The difference between the two hierarchy systems first appears in the two-particle equation. The difference is twofold. First, the present formalism includes thermal fluctuations that are missing in the BBGKY formalism. Second, the former allows us to formulate multi-time correlations as well, whereas the latter is restricted to simultaneous correlation. These two features are favorably utilized in deriving the Landau-Lifshitz fluctuation law in a most straightforward manner. Also, equations describing the nonequilibrium interaction between thermal and fluid-dynamical fluctuations are derived.