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Avseth P., Mukerji T. Ч Quantitative seismic interpretation. Applying rock physics tools to reduce interpretation risk
Avseth P., Mukerji T. Ч Quantitative seismic interpretation. Applying rock physics tools to reduce interpretation risk



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Ќазвание: Quantitative seismic interpretation. Applying rock physics tools to reduce interpretation risk

јвторы: Avseth P., Mukerji T.

јннотаци€:

Every year finding new oil is harder, riskier, and more expensive - a natural consequence of ils finiteness. As dictated by M. King Humbert's "peak," declines in discoveries and production are inevitable. Yet demand continues, forcing us to deeper water, more complex reservoirs, and smaller, more subtle oil fields.
A key to managing this complexity and risk has always been effective integration of the diverse petroleum technologies. Workstations, visualization software, and geo-statistics have contributed to integrating the vast amounts of data that we sometimes drown in. Perhaps more important are the asset teams that exploit diverse data by integrating expertise. Our goal, in preparing Quantitative Seismic Interpretation, is to help illustrate the powerful role that rock physics can play in integrating both the data and expertise of geophysics and geology for reservoir characterization.
Our objective for this book is to help make the links between seismic and reservoir properties more quantitative. Most of our examples use amplitude signatures and impedances, but we consider quantitative seismic interpretation to include the use of any seismic attributes for which there are specific models relating them to the rock properties. Our approach is to introduce fundamental rock physics relations, which help to quantify the geophysical signatures of rock and fluid properties. Since rock properties are a consequence of geologic processes, we begin to quantify the seismic signatures of various geologic trends. We also fully embrace probabilistic and geostatistical tools, as quantitative means for managing the inevitable uncertainty that accompanies all quantitative methods. Quantifying, managing, and understanding the uncertainties are critical for survival in a risky environment.


язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 2005

 оличество страниц: 359

ƒобавлена в каталог: 27.03.2011

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
$V_P-V_S$ relations      34Ч38 see
Acoustic impedance      104 236 278Ч295 see
Adiabatic modulus      see "Fluid properties"
American polarity standard      see "Polarity"
Anisotropy, AVAZ      248
Anisotropy, Brown and Korringa relations for fluid substitution      21
Anisotropy, elastic      62 183Ч185 222Ч223 248Ч251 275
Anisotropy, elastic impedance, anisotropic      248Ч251
Anisotropy, Thomsen's parameters      184 248
Aspect ratio      see "Inclusion models"
Attenuation, layered media      188Ч189
Attenuation, scattering      188Ч190
Attenuation, seismic      190Ч191 see "Bisq "Squirt
Autopicking      170
AVO      30 180Ч230 258Ч278 306Ч312 317Ч331 see value
AVO, Aki Ч Richards approximation      182 283
AVO, attributes      211Ч218 327
AVO, classes      202Ч204
AVO, depth trends      227Ч229
AVO, fluid factor      215Ч216
AVO, inversion      201Ч202
AVO, parameters      200Ч201
AVO, Poisson reflectivity      214
AVO, pre-processing      191Ч195 320
AVO, probabilistic      225Ч230
AVO, Shuey approximation      182 265 275 276 302 309
AVO, three-term AVO      221Ч223
AVO, trends      204Ч210
AVO, ultra-far AVO      223Ч225
Backus average      117 129Ч130 275
Batzle Ч Wang relations      19 29
Bayes classification      147Ч159 163 277 285 294 327
Bayes classification, Bayes decision rule      149
Bayes classification, confusion matrix      141
Bayes classification, minimum Bayes error      151Ч152 156
Biot model      19 43
Bisq model      44
Bootstrap      141
Bounds, elastic      3Ч8 21 45
Bounds, Hashin Ч Shtrikman      6Ч8 11 13 43 56 58 61 62
Bounds, modified lower bound      13 56 61 62 63 66 103
Bounds, modified upper bound      11 58 90
Bounds, Reuss bound      5Ч6 7 8 11 22 60 62 63 70
Bounds, Voigt bound      5Ч6 7 63 90
Brie equation      24
Bright spot      169 174Ч175
Brown and Korringa      21 22
Bubble point      26
case studies      70Ч81 83Ч90 96Ч101 106Ч107 258Ч316
Castagna      320 329 see
Cementation      11 84 92 324 see modified "Diagenesis" "Jizba's
Cementation, cementation trend      11Ч15 43
Cementation, constant-cement model      13 58Ч59 72 80
Cementation, contact-cement model      12 44 52 57Ч58 72 88 96 98 104
Chemical compaction      see "Diagenesis"
Classification      323Ч328 see "Facies "Statistical
Clay      17 30 60Ч62 see "Han's "Models rock
Clay minerals      60
Compaction      11 13 25 28 90Ч95 306
Confusion matrix      141 145
Constant-cement model      13 58Ч59 72 80
Constant-clay model      13 52 53 62 312
Contact models      44 55
Contact-cement model      12 44 52 57Ч58 72 88 96 98 104
Converted waves      245Ч248 317
Coordination number      55 57 92 98
Critical porosity      2 9 54 60 62 63 98 306
Cross-plot analysis      101Ч107 202Ч211 319 321 326
Cumulative distribution functions      113
Deposition      8 see
Deposition, depositional trends      11
Depth trends      50 90Ч95 227Ч229 306Ч312 319 323Ч325 330 see
Derived distributions      117 124
Diagenesis      1 11 28 51Ч70 90Ч95 see "Compaction"
Diagenesis, diagenetic trends      9 10 11Ч15
Diagenesis, pressure solution      11 13 92
Dim spot      169 174Ч175 318
Discriminant analysis      140Ч145 163
dispersion      20Ч21 see
Dispersion, Biot model      19 43
Dispersion, Bisq model      44
Dispersion, squirt model      20 44
Drainage      23
Drained condition      19
Dry rock      19
Dvorkin Ч Gutierrez models, shaly sand model      53 66
Dvorkin Ч Gutierrez models, silty shale model      53 61
Effective stress      see "Pressure effects"
Effective-medium models      see "Models rock
Empirical relations, Batzle Ч Wang relations      19 29
Empirical relations, Brie equation      23
Empirical relations, coordination number      55
Empirical relations, Gardner relations      215
Empirical relations, Greenberg Ч Castagna relations      38 321
Empirical relations, Han relations      2 9Ч10 11 13 30 63
Empirical relations, Raiga Ч Clemenceau relation      2 11
Empirical relations, Raymer Ч Hunt Ч Gardner relation      2 11
Empirical relations, Wyllie time average      2 11 see rock "
entropy      132Ч135
European polarity standard      see "Polarity"
Facies interpretation      50 81Ч90 125 177 258Ч316 317 323Ч328
Far-offset impedance      30 41 104 236Ч243 278Ч295 317
Field examples      see "Case studies"
Flat spot      175Ч176 220 324
Flaw of averages      117Ч119
Fluid factor      215Ч216
Fluid properties      19 28 311 see "Suspension"
Fluid properties, adiabatic modulus      19
Fluid properties, Batzle Ч Wang relations      19 29
Fluid properties, isothermal modulus      19
Fluid substitution      15Ч24 42Ч43 258Ч316 321
Fluid substitution, Brie equation      24
Fluid substitution, Brown and Korringa relations      21 22
Fluid substitution, Gassmann relations      3 15Ч24 34 43 64 324
Focusing      see "Overburden effects"
Frequentist      113
Friable-sand model      52 58 60 63 72 84 88 263 312
Gardner relations      215
Gassmann      3 15Ч24 34 43 64 324 see
Geostatistics      124 125 131Ч132 233 288Ч293 328
Granular-medium models      4 44 51Ч70 see rock
Greenberg Ч Castagna      38 321
Han      2 9Ч10 11 13 30 63
Hard event      169 171Ч172 318
Hashin Ч Shtrikman bounds      see "Bounds elastic"
Hertz Ч Mindlin theory      55 95 100 103 307 324 see
Heuristic models      46 see modified "Bounds modified
Imbibition      23
Impedance inversion      195 234Ч243 see
Inclusion models      2 4 15 20 44 54
Increasing-cement model      52
Information theory      41 132
Information theory, value of additional information      113 119Ч123
Interference      see "Tuning"
Intrinsic variability      126 153
inversion      230Ч252
Inversion, hybrid inversion      240
Inversion, impedance inversion      234Ч243 278Ч295
Isostrain      5
Isostress      5 22
Isothermal modulus      see "Fluid properties"
Jackknife      141
Jizba's cemented shaly sand model      53 58 67 81
Kernel density estimators      114 128
Kuster and Toksoez model      44
Lambda-mu analysis      30 41 104 243Ч245
Lame parameters      41 243Ч245 317
Laminated sand-shale model      53 69 84
Lithofacies      see "Facies interpretation"
Lithology substitution      42Ч43 321
Mahalanobis distance      140 264 272 285 297 311
Markov chains      129 130 136
Models, Biot model      19 43
Models, Bisq model      44
Models, Brown and Korringa relations      21 22
Models, computational models      45
Models, constant-cement model      13 58Ч59 72 80
Models, constant-clay model      13 52 53 62 312
Models, contact models      44 55
Models, contact-cement model      12 44 52 57Ч58 72 88 96 98 104
Models, critical porosity model      2 9
Models, Dvorkin Ч Gutierrez shaly sand model      53 66
Models, Dvorkin Ч Gutierrez silty shale model      53
Models, friable-sand model      52 58 60 63 72 84 263 312
Models, Gassmann relations      3 15Ч24 34 43 64 324
Models, granular-medium models      4 51Ч70
Models, Hertz Ч Mindlin model      55 95 100 103 307 324
Models, inclusion models      2 4 15 20 44 54
Models, increasing-cement model      52
Models, Jizba's cemented shaly sand model      53 58 67 81
Models, Kuster Ч Toksoez model      44
Models, laminated sandy shale model      69 84
Models, rock physics      43Ч45 51Ч70
Models, shales      60Ч62 78 79 see
Models, soft sediment model      52 58 60 63 72 84
Models, squirt model      20 44
Models, Yin Ч Marion shaly sand model      53 64 260
Models, Yin Ч Marion silty shale model      53 260 see
Modified lower bound      see "Heuristic models"
Modified upper bound      see "Heuristic models"
Monte Carlo simulation      119 124 127 136Ч138 283 309 324 see
Net-to-gross      179Ч180
Neural networks      159Ч162 163 165
Nonparametric density estimation      114 115
O'Doherty Ч Anstey formula      188Ч189
Overburden effects      187 268 275
Overpressure      90 221 see
P-to-S impedance      see "Converted waves"
Partial saturation      see "Saturation"
Patchy saturation      23
Penny-shaped cracks      see "Inclusion models"
Poisson reflectivity      214
Polarity      169
Polarity, American polarity standard      170
Polarity, European polarity standard      170
Polarization attributes      217Ч218
Pore stiffness      3 15
Pore-fluid properties      see "Fluid properties"
Pressure effects      24Ч29 34
Pressure solution      see "Diagenesis"
Principal component analysis      145Ч146
probability      113
Probability density functions      113Ч117 147
Probability mass function      113
Raiga Ч Clemenceau      2 11
Random variables      113
Raymer Ч Hunt Ч Gardner      2 11
Reflection coefficient      182 185 245 248
Residual gas      218Ч219 246
Resolution      172Ч173
Reuss      see "Bounds elastic"
Rock physics bottle-neck      39
Rock physics diagnostics      50 326
Rock physics templates      50 101Ч107 251 312Ч316 317 321 322Ч323 331
Rock physics What ifs      42Ч43 320Ч322 see "Lithology
RPT      see "Rock physics templates"
Saturation      34 321
Saturation, Brie equation      24
Saturation, partial saturation      22Ч24 246
Saturation, patchy saturation      23
Saturation, uniform saturation      22
Scattering      188Ч190
Scattering, O'Doherty Ч Anstey formula      188Ч189
Sedimentation      1 11 51Ч70 see
Seismic modeling      252Ч256
Shale-sand cross-over      91 100 170
Shales      60Ч62 78 91 see "Models rock
Shaly sands      62Ч70 78 see "Models rock
Shear attributes, value of      30Ч42 119Ч123 261
Shuey approximation      see "AVO Shuey
Simulation, stochastic      131 136Ч138
Soft event      169 171Ч172 318
Soft sediment model      52 58 60 63 72 84
Sorting, sorting trend      11Ч15 54Ч57 58 75 104
Squirt model      20 44
Statistical classification      124 130 138Ч165
Statistical classification, Bayesian classification      147Ч159
Statistical classification, discriminant analysis      140Ч145
Statistical classification, neural networks      159Ч162
Statistical rock physics      111Ч167 263Ч266 269Ч274 277Ч312 321 324 325Ч328 see "Statistical
Stratigraphic interpretation      177Ч179 see
Subjective      113 see
Suspension      5 8 13 60
Thomsen's parameters      184 248
Transmissivity      188
tuning      173Ч174 179 185Ч187 268 269 275 301 319
Turbidite systems      1 70Ч81 83Ч90 258Ч306 312Ч316
Uncertainty, uses of      112
Upscaling      129Ч130 147
Velocity-porosity      2Ч15 see "Models rock
Voigt      see "Bounds elastic"
Walther's law      82 127 276
Wavelet      169 192 234 see
What ifs      see "Rock physics What"
workflows      123Ч124 317Ч331
Wyllie time average      2 11
Yin Ч Marion models      260
Yin Ч Marion models, shaly sand model      53 64
Yin Ч Marion models, silty shale model      53
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