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Название: Protocols for micropropagation of woody trees and fruits
Автор: Jain S.M.
Micropropagation has become a reliable and routine approach for large-scale rapid
plant multiplication, which is based on plant cell, tissue and organ culture on well
defined tissue culture media under aseptic conditions. A lot of research efforts are
being made to develop and refine micropropagation methods and culture media for
large-scale plant multiplication of several number of plant species. However, many
woody and fruit plant species still remain recalcitrant to in vitro culture and require
highly specific culture conditions for plant growth and development.
The recent challenges on plant cell cycle regulation and the presented potential
molecular mechanisms of recalcitrance are providing excellent background for understanding
on plant cell totipotency and what is more development of micropropagation
protocols. Today, the need for appropriate in vitro plant regeneration methods is
overwhelming both for basic and applied research in order to overcome problems
facing micropropagation such as somaclonal variation, recalcitrant rooting in woody
species, hyperhydricity, high labour cost, contamination, loss of material during
hardening, quality of plant material and polyphenols. For large-scale in vitro plant
production the important attributes are the quality, cost effectiveness, maintenance
of genetic fidelity, and long-term storage. Moreover, the useful applications of micropropagation
in various aspects make this technology more relevant for example
to production of virus-free planting material, cryopreservation of endangered and
elite woody species, applications in tree breeding, afforestation and reforestation.
Reforestation is important to prevent the loss of forest resources including timber,
biodiversity and water resources, and would require continuous supply of planting
material. The majority of world wood products still come from natural and seminatural
forests, but there is a clear trend towards more efficient plantation forestry.
Generally, the development of vegetative propagation methods will yield additional
profit for plantation forestry by the exploitation of non-additive genetic variation,
by providing more homogenous planting material and by compensating potential
shortage of improved seed stock.