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Название: Vittoria 1813: Wellington Sweeps the French from Spain
Автор: Fletcher I.
Despite Wellington's success against Marmont's army at Salamanca in July, the year of 1812 ended in bitter disappointment for the British. After occupying Madrid Wellington's troops were repulsed at Burgos. The subsequent retreat in October and November 1812 was accompanied by all the miseries that had characterised Sir John Moore's famous retreat to Corunna in the winter of 1808-09. Those soldiers who endured both declared that the retreat from Burgos was by far the worse. Discipline collapsed and the starving soldiers looted what they could. With the army once again concentrated around Ciudad Rodrigo, Wellington issued his infamous memorandum concerning the conduct of his officers. By the spring of 1813 the army had recovered and been reinforced from England. In a series of brilliant manoeuvres Wellington threw the French onto the defensive on all fronts. His troops converged at Vittoria, 90,000 men and 90 guns attacking in 4 mutually supporting columns. The French lost 7,000 men and 143 guns, and any hopes the French had of maintaining their position in the Iberian Peninsula were crushed forever.