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Название: Depression and Bargaining in postpartum
Автор: Hagen E.H.
It was recently hypothesized that depression might function, in part, as a bargaining strategy when cooperation imposes a net cost but there are social constraints on defection (Hagen 1999). If so, such social constraints should be associated with depression, and depression in one partner should be associated with increased investment by other partners. Several predictions of this hypothesis were tested using postpartum depression (PPD) as a model for depression in general. The depression levels, abortion attitudes, additional mating opportunities, and investment in childrearing of 240 mothers and fathers with a new child were measured using self report instruments. Mothers were also asked whether the new child was planned and whether it was wanted. Perceived constraints on abortion correlated significantly with PPD levels, but, as predicted, only for mothers with an unplanned or unwanted child. Contrary to predictions, perceived constraints imposed by family and friends did not correlate with PPD levels. Social constraints on the pursuit of extra-pair copulations also correlated significantly with PPD levels, but, as predicted, only for men. As predicted, PPD levels in one spouse correlated significantly with increased investment in childrearing as reported by the other spouse. PPD levels correlated positively with parity for older women with few future reproductive opportunities, as predicted.