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Zory P.S. Quantum well lasers
Zory P.S.  Quantum well lasers









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: Quantum well lasers

: Zory P.S.

:

This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.


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ed2k: ed2k stats

: 1993

: 504

: 11.10.2005

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Absorption, optical      3 5 294
AlGaAs      see GaAs/AlGaAs
AlGaInP      see GaInP/AlGaInP
Amplified spontaneous emission      487 490
Amplifiers optical fiber      370
Amplifiers semiconductor      351
Angular momentum representation      47
Anisotropy      see Gain TE/TM
Antiguiding      398
Atomic orbitals      45
Atomic ordering (GaInP/AlGaInP)      419 426427
Auger recombination      see Recombination
Axial approximation      78
Band filling      155
Band mixing      see Valence band structure/effects
Band offset/discontinuity GaAs/AlGaAs      6 7880 135
Band offset/discontinuity GaInP/AlGaInP      421 22
Band offset/discontinuity InGaAs/AlGaAs      7880 380
Band offset/discontinuity InGaAs/InGaAsP      346
Band structure conduction band      6061
Band structure effects of strain on      7278 199 342 354
Band structure in III-V semiconductors      4549 6367
Band structure valence band      see valence band structure/effects
Band, parabolic      3 137 139 140
Band-tail states      136
bandgap      3 5
Bandgap AlGaAs      135
Bandgap AlGaInP      419421 427
Bandgap effective, of quantum well      141
Bandgap renormalization      150 444
Bandgap shrinkage      109
Barrier layer      2 7
Biaxial strain      see Strained active layers/lasers
Bloch functions definition of      19
Bloch functions in III-V semiconductors      4647
Bloch functions linear combinations of      47 63 67
Bloch functions normalization of      19
Bloch functions orthogonality of      20 46
Bloch functions symmetry of      46
Brillouin zone      2 338342
Broadening      see Gain; linewidth Intraband
Buried heterostructure laser (BH)      207 400
Carrier confinement/injection efficiency (capture/leakage)      see also Carrier transport 43 159 164166 170172 218 230 236242 248 280286 314316 324 421422 428431 439450 462465 476 482
Carrier density      38 44 465 467 491
Carrier scattering      see Intraband relaxation
Carrier transport      229236
Carrier-carrier scattering      106 111
Carrier-phonon scattering      108 115
Catastrophic optical degradation      405 433434 452
Cathodoluminescence      474 476
Cavity length (optimum)      173
Characteristic temperature ($T_{0}$) GaAs/AlGaAs      155 166 470 482 486
Characteristic temperature ($T_{0}$) GaInP/AlGaInP      429 440445
Characteristic temperature ($T_{0}$) InGaAs/AlGaAs      390 394 405
Characteristic temperature ($T_{0}$) InGaAs/InGaAsP      348 350
Charge neutrality      137 140 164
Chirp      2 462
confinement      see Carrier confinement; Optical confinement
Connection rules for envelope functions      60 68
Coupled wells      6
Critical thickness      372
Deformation potentials      340 376
Density of states      89 2024 75 104 136138 142 191 462 465466 488
Density of states bulk      23
Density of states optical      42
Density of states reduced      34 138 467
Density of states table      23
Differential gain      see Gain
Dipole moment anisotropy      468
Doping effects on gain      90
effective mass      6 135 138 140 165 382 420421
Effective mass anisotropy of      20 66
Effective mass approximate conduction band      48
Effective mass definition of      20
Effective mass effect on gain      38
Effective mass effects of other bands on      48
Effective mass effects of strain on      76
Effective mass equation conduction band (nondegenerate)      58
Effective mass equation valence band (degenerate)      6372
Effective mass equation valence band (degenerate) bulk solutions to      65
Effective mass equation valence band (degenerate) coupling term in      65
Effective mass equation valence band (degenerate) quantum well solutions to      67
Effective mass equation valence band (degenerate) strained      74
Effective mass in-plane      44 62
Effective mass reduced      34 138
Effective mass relation to Luttinger parameters      64
Effective mass values for      79
Effective well width      112
Efficiency differential      132 310316
Efficiency external      280286 350
Efficiency internal      280286 350 468
Efficiency power      318
Electron oscillation      2
Electron-electron scattering      111
Electron-hole scattering      111
Energy broadening      see Lineshape function
Envelope function approximation      19 58 64 341
Envelope functions definition of      19 111
Envelope functions in conduction band      5960
Envelope functions in valence band      6768
Envelope functions normalization of      19 71
Envelope functions orthogonality of      31
Equivalent circuit      242
Erbium doped fibers      370
Exchange energy      108
Far field patterns      399
Fermi functions and levels      10 34 37 104 137141 147 156 159 291 467 473 488
Fermi's golden rule      2835
Frequency modulation, gain lever      260
GaAS      see GaAs/AlGaAs
GaAs/AlGaAs (850nm)      7 86 134 159 163 175 194 295 300 367 462
Gain broadening      41 92 99 104 125 143150 294 311 462 468
Gain compression      218 220 223 225
Gain condition for      see Transparency
Gain confinement factor      see Optical confinement
Gain definition of      35
Gain differential      3840 8891 155 175 219 347 384 462 460472
Gain example calculations of      8492
Gain high      298302
Gain lever      219 252
Gain mode      27 166 293 304305 429
Gain peak/maximum      2 86 133 155 158 294302 443445
Gain saturation      154155 177 300 361
Gain spectral convolution of      see Intraband relaxation
Gain spectral dependence      36 84 99 104 125 138 145 147152 154 293 301 467
Gain TE/TM      88 142 150 153 154 330 351 357 359 363
Gain threshold      166 196 295 347 468
Gain-current relations GaAs/AlGaAs      8692 158 295297 300305
Gain-current relations GaInP/AlGaInP      429
Gain-current relations InGaAs/AlGaAs      8692
Gain-current relations InGaAsP/InP      295297
Gain-guiding      398 449452
GaInP/AlGaInP (670nm)      415460
Green's function      102
Group velocity      36 42
Heat of formation      388
Higher lying quantized states      319323
Hole-electron scattering      111
Hole-hole scattering      111
Index guided lasers      400 449452
InGaAs/AlGaAs (980nm)      78 199 223 371
InGaAs/InGaAsP (1550nm)      163 233 344
InGaAsP/GaAs (810 and 860nm)      279
InGaAsP/InP(1300nm)      163 169 175 279
Injection efficiency      see Carrier confinement
Interface quality      132
Intervalence band absorption      330 332 420
Intraband relaxation      41 84 92 97130 137 142152 294 467
Inversion layer      7
K factor      234 399
k*p theory      337
k-selection (momentum conservation)      8 30 33 90 136 140 143 290
Landau levels      463 476
Laser arrays      402
Lattice match      371 416418 425
Lead salt QW Laser      321
Leakage current      see Carrier confinement
Lifetesting      403
Lifetime      see Recombination
Lineshape function      see Intraband relaxation
Linewidth, mode      155 384 462 472 483
Liquid phase epitaxy, (LPE)      2 10 278 368
Long wavelength lasers      see InGaAs/InGaAsP InGaAsP/InP
Loss, (mode)      166 294 304 309313 469 490
Luttinger parameters      64 338
Luttinger parameters values for      79
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian      5867 337
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian axial approximation      78 339
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian diagonal approximation      340 342
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian for (111) quantization axis      342 353
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian spherical approximation      339
Luttinger Kohn Hamiltonian spin matrices      338
Matrix element basis function momentum      47 49 138
Matrix element basis function momentum values of      49
Matrix element transition      31 50 70 138 145 177178 290 357
Matrix element transition k-dependence of      80 358
Matrix element transition polariz on dependence of      52 150 293
Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition      see MOCVD; OMVPE
Misfit dislocations      372
MOCVD      10 11 15 368 386 425426 463
Mode hopping      358
Mode-locking      264271
Mode-locking parameter ranges      267
Mode-locking phasor description      270
Modulation bandwidth      218
Modulation efficiency, gain lever      255
molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)      3 5 10 11 15 368 390 425426 463
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on nonplanar substrates      476
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on vicinal substrates      464 475 478
Momentum conservation      see k-selection
Multi quantum well (MQW)      11 12 131188 349 440
Non-Markovian process      110
Nonradiative lifetime      see Recombination
OMVPE      425426 463
OMVPE on nonplanar substrates      464 476 479
OMVPE on vicinal substrates      475
Optical confinement      135 166 293 299 395 429430 437 443 462 468 481 488
Optical fiber amplifiers      370
Optical gain      see Gain
Optical mode      400 469 488 492
Optical transition      see Transitions
Organometallic vapor phase epitaxy      see OMVPE
Oxide defined stripe lasers      391
P-doping, AlGaInP      428429 439
Parabolic band      3 137 139 140
Pattern effect      214
Perturbation theory      28 62
Phase-locked array      402
photoluminescence      see also Efficiency
Photoluminescence AlGaAs/GaAs interface      177
Photoluminescence InGaAsp (1300nm)      280286
Photoluminescence InGaAsP (850nm)      280286
Photoluminescence linewidth      425
Photoluminescence quantum wires      474 486
Piezoelectric fields, strain-induced      343
Poisson's ratio      340 373
Polarization      see also Gain TE/TM 5257 101 125 132 150154 293 382 386
Quantum density of states in      23 465466
Quantum dot      462
Quantum dot fabrication techniques      473
Quantum dot laser      462 477
Quantum fabrication techniques      473
Quantum polarization dependence of      5457
Quantum res.      2 46
Quantum subbands      481 484 487
Quasi-Fermi level      see Fermi functions and levels
Rare earth doped fibers      370
Recombination Auger      135 158159 161163 168 170171 330 333334 347348 385386 420 445
Recombination interface      161162 170174 177180 182 474
Recombination leakage      164166
Recombination non-radiative      see Spontaneous emission 9 142 159163
Refractive index      36 42 135 139 141 421 472
Relative intensity noise, gain lever      258
Relaxation broadening      see Intraband relaxation
Relaxation oscillation      225 462 470 483
Reliability      350 363 403
Reservoir model      see Carrier transport
Resonant tunneling      2 7 14
Saturable absorber      265
Scattering      see Intraband relaxation
Schroedinger equation      see Effective mass equation 19
Screened Coulomb potential      111112
Self-pulsation      265
Separate confinement      134 345
Separate confinement AlGaInP      437438
Separate confinement graded index      197 207 211
Short-period superlattice      446447
Spatial quantization      7
Spherical approximation      78
Spin degeneracy      138
Spin-orbit interaction      47
Spin-orbit splitting energy      47 63 78
Spontaneous emission      4243 141 145 148151 219
Spontaneous emission broadening      145146 149 151
Spontaneous emission comparison to $BN^{2}$      87
Spontaneous emission relation to current density      43 133 141 157158
Stark shift      343
Strained active layers/lasers      38 7278 8489 198203 329366 367413 448450
Subband mixing      see Valence band structure/effects
Substrate orientation      342 352 427 432 446
Superlattice      7 14
Switch-on delay      211
Switching, digital      210
TE polarization      see Polarization
Thermal expansion coefficient      417
Thermal guiding      398
Thermal restivity      418 429
Threshold current/density      189216
Threshold current/density GaAs/AlGaAs      168180 469470 491
Threshold current/density GaAs/AlGaAs compared with (111) growth direction      330331 359361
Threshold current/density GaInP/AlGaInP      430431 438 442
Threshold current/density InGaAs/AlGaAs      393397
Threshold current/density InGaAs/InGaAsP      347351
Threshold current/density InGaAsP/GaAs      304 313
Threshold current/density InGaAsP/InP      309
Threshold current/density temperature dependence      see Characteristic temperature
TM polarization      see Polarization
TM-mode lasers      449
transitions      see also Matrix element
Transitions allowed and forbidden      8 31 81
Transitions band edge strength of      55
Transitions higher lying quantum states      319
Transitions localized      30
Transitions net rate of downward      35
Transitions spin-degenerate      50
Transparency      38 89 91 125 168 193 396 429 443 448 469
Transport, carrier      229236
Tunable laser, gain lever      262
Tunneling      7 14
Urbach tail      121
Valence band structure/effects      32 35 44 57 6378 329366
Vertical emitting lasers      203
Zero-bias modulation      211
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