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Название: Reviews of plasma physics. Volume 24
Автор: Shafranov V. D.
The "Reviews of Plasma Physics", Vol. 24. contains two reviews. This book, as well as the previous volumes, presents reviews for specialists interested in plasma physics theory. In the review by V.A. Rozhansky. the problem of currents and self-consistent electric fields in the magnetized fully ionized plasma is considered. The situation in fully ionized plasma is completely different from that in solid state, gases, or partially ionized plasmas, where the current density is proportional to the electric field. In contrast, in a fully ionized magnetized plasma, a homogeneous electric Held causes drift both for electrons and ions, while a current in the direction of the electric field is absent. A perpendicular current arises when the electric field is temporary or spatially dependent. Various mechanisms, when the perpendicular currents are driven by inertia, collisions with neutrals and different components of viscosity tensor are analyzed in the review. Current systems in a vicinity of a biased electrode are studied in connection with such applications as probes, unipolar arc formation, pellets, where two-dimensional or three-dimensional currents systems determine plasma dynamics, shielding properties, and current-voltage characteristics.
Since the end of 80th it became clear that self-consistent electric fields play the key role in the formation of improved confinement regimes (H-regimcs) in tokamaks and stellaralors. The poloidal drifts suppress the turbulence and hence the turbulent transport coefficients so that the transport barriers with steep density and temperature gradients and reduced transport coefficients are created. It is demonstrated that the electric field structure is consistent with the experimental observations.