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Berry M.V. Ч Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation
Berry M.V. Ч Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation

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Ќазвание: Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation

јвтор: Berry M.V.


General relativity and quantum mechanics have become the two central pillars of theoretical physics. Moreover, general relativity has important applications in astrophysics and high-energy particle physics. Covering the fundamentals of the subject, Principles of Cosmology and Gravitation describes the universe as revealed by observations and presents a theoretical framework to enable important cosmological formulae to be derived and numerical calculations performed. Avoiding elaborate formal discussions, the book presents a practical approach that focuses on the general theory of relativity. It examines different evolutionary models and the gravitational effects of massive bodies. The book also includes a large number of worked examples and problems, half with solutions.

язык: en

–убрика: ‘изика/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

»здание: 1 edition

√од издани€: 1976

 оличество страниц: 179

ƒобавлена в каталог: 09.04.2010

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ѕредметный указатель
'Big bang' theory      21Ч22
'big bang' theory, as consequence of general relativity      124Ч126
'big bang' theory, conditions before singularity      132Ч133
'Big bang' theory, horizons in early epochs of      110
'big bang' theory, nature of singularity      156Ч157
'Dachshund' universe      132
'Hair' of black hole      101
'Mikado', the      157
'Radius of universe'      105
Ad hoc hypothesis      21 22 30 139 143
Age of the universe      124Ч125 132 134 138
Angular momentum of protogalaxy      152Ч153
Antimatter in early universe      155Ч156
Arc length      48Ч49
Arc length in space of constant curvature      69
Arrow of time      see "Time"
Astronomical unit      7
Baade, W.      13
Bending of light      see "Deflection of light"
Berkeley, G.      37
Black hole      4 17 41 91Ч102
Black-body radiation      see "Cosmic black-body radiation"
Bondi, H.      4 133 134
Brans Ч Dicke theory      139
Brillouin, L.      157
Caesium clocks      78
Cepheid variables      12Ч14
Chaos in early universe      146
Charlier, C.      103
Clock paradox      24 57Ч58 79
Closed Universe      106 128
Clustering of galaxies      103
Collapse of universe      110 126Ч127 132Ч133
Comoving coordinates      104
Compton scattering      151
Continuous creation      22 135
Coordinate system      23 47
Coordinate system and equivalence principle      42
Coordinate system in special relativity      35
Coordinate system, cosmic      104
Cosmic black-body radiation      5 22 105 140Ч145
Cosmic fluid      103
Cosmic fluid, gravitation of      119Ч123
Cosmic repulsion      see "Cosmical constant"
Cosmic scale factor      105
Cosmic scale factor and horizons      109Ч111
Cosmic scale factor and Hubble's constant      106
Cosmic scale factor and red shift      108
Cosmic scale factor in early universe      145 147
Cosmic scale factor on Dirac's theory      137Ч138
Cosmic scale factor, determination of      123Ч133
Cosmic scale factor, equations governing      119Ч122
Cosmical constant      120Ч123
Cosmogony      2
Cosmography      1 3Ч22
Cosmological principle      1Ч2 22 104 133Ч134
Covariance principle      48 56 59
Curvature      55 60Ч73
Curvature of spacetime      119Ч120
Curvature, tensor      67 71
Cygnus, X1      102
de Laplace, P.      101
Deceleration parameter      108
Deceleration parameter and cosmical constant      122
Deceleration parameter and number counts      116
Deceleration parameter in Dirac's cosmology      138
Deceleration parameter in steady state theory      134
Deceleration parameter, determination of      113
Deflection of light      44Ч45 85Ч88
Density, of galaxies      114
Density, of matter      4 15Ч17 140
Density, of radiation      5 140Ч145
Density, on steady state theory      135
Deuterium in early universe      154
Dirac, P.      136Ч139
Distance, hierarchy      5Ч15
Distance, luminosity      112
Distance, measures of      1 112
Distance, modulus      11
Distance, proper      50 51 106
Distance, table of      4
Doppler shift      see "Red shift"
Dynamics of universe models      119Ч139
Earth, as vantage point      1 3
Earth, clocks near      76Ч79
Earth, precession of orbit      84
Echo, radar, time delay of      88Ч91
Eddington Ч Lemaitre model      132 134
Einstein, A., absolute space      33
Einstein, A., closed universe      128Ч129
Einstein, A., cosmical constant      120
Einstein, A., covariance principle      47Ч48
Einstein, A., equivalence principle      42
Einstein, A., field equations      48 71
Einstein, A., geodesic postulate      59
Einstein, A., special relativity      23 35
Electromagnetism      34 38
electrostatic forces      24
Entropy of universe      133
Equivalence principle      41Ч45 49 55 85
Ergosphere      100
Ether      34Ч35
Event      23 43 47
Event horizon      see "Horizon"
Evolution of galaxies      112 116Ч118 134Ч135
Evolution of universe models      119Ч133
Expansion of universe and red shift      20
Expansion of universe and scale factor      105Ч106
Expansion of universe and time's arrow      133
Extremal path      see "Geodesic"
Field equations      48 59 71 72 120 128
Fluctuations in ylem      146
Frame of reference      23 47
Frame of reference, cosmic      104 143Ч144
Frame of reference, dragging of      97Ч99
Frame of reference, local inertial      43Ч44 49 55 59 60 70
Frame of reference, Newtonian inertial      31Ч34 36
Friedmann's equation      123Ч124
Galactic evolution      see "Evolution"
Galaxies, brightest      14Ч15
Galaxies, clustering      103
Galaxies, condensation      143Ч153
Galaxies, mass      15Ч17
Galaxies, number density      113Ч114
Galaxies, origin of disc shape      152Ч153
Galaxies, recession      18Ч19
Galaxies, types, frontispiece      3
Galileo, G., equality of inertial and gravitational mass      27
Galileo, G., relativity      31Ч33 35
Galileo, G., transformation of coordinates      23 35
Gauss, K., curvature formula      66Ч67 76 119 160Ч163
Gauss, K., geometry near Earth      61 73
Gauss, K., intrinsic geometry of surfaces      60
Geodesic      55Ч60
Geodesic circle      62
Geodesic coordinates      160
Geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime      79 86
Geodesic on cylinder      64Ч5
Geodesic triangle      67
Gilbert, W.S.      157
Gold, T.      134
Gravitational collapse      92 100
Gravitational shift      see "Red shift"
Gravitational waves      39Ч41 73 102
Gravity, variation of      136Ч139
Hafele Ч Keating experiment      76Ч79
Helium formation      154Ч155
Hertzsprung Ч Russell relation      11Ч12
Hierarchical model of universe      103
Homogeneity of universe      103Ч104 110 145Ч146
Horizon, 'event' and 'object'      109Ч111
Horizon, 'event' and Hubble's law      22 39
Horizon, 'event' in early universe      146
Horizon, 'event' near black hole      100
Hoyle, F.      135
Hubble's Law      18Ч19 21 22 39 106 110 117
Hubble, and Cepheid variables      13
Hyperspheres      68Ч70
Icarus, precession of orbit      84
Inertial frame      see "Frame of reference"
Inertial induction      39
Initial singularity      156Ч157
Instability in early universe      146Ч150
Interatomic forces      25
interval      see "Separation"
Isotropy of universe      104 110 146
Jeans' mass      147Ч150
Kerr, R.      98 101
Kinematics of universe models      103Ч118
Light cones      93 98Ч99
Lorentz contraction      50Ч51
Lorentz transformation      23Ч24 35 43 49
Luminosity and Dirac's theory      138
Luminosity and number counts      17 116Ч117
Luminosity and red shift      113
Luminosity and steady state theory      135Ч136
Luminosity of collapsing star      97
Luminosity, absolute and apparent      9Ч10
Mach's principle      37Ч39 97 120 128 139
Magnitude, absolute and apparent      10 112
Main sequence stars      11Ч12
Mass      see also "Missing mass problem"
Mass and spacetime      70Ч73
Mass, abundance of helium      154Ч155
Mass, inertial and gravitational      25Ч28 59 81
Matter-dominated era      141 149
Mercury      see "Precession of perihelion"
Metric tensor      53Ч55 59
Metric tensor and curvature of surface      63Ч67
Metric tensor of Robertson Ч Walker spacetime      105
Metric tensor of Schwarzschild spacetime      76 91Ч92
Metric tensor of space of constant curvature      68Ч70
Michelson Ч Morley experiment      35
Microwave background radiation      see "Cosmic black body radiation"
Minkowski, H.      37
Missing mass problem      17 123 144 145 151
Moessbauer effect      41 45
Moving cluster method      9
Naked singularity      101
Neutrality of charge      25Ч26
Neutron star      40 101
Newtonian limit of general relativity      72 81 120Ч121
Non-Euclidean geometry      15 61 73 121 see
novae      14
Nuclear forces      24Ч25
Nucleosynthesis      153Ч155
Null cones      93 98Ч99
Null geodesic      58 59
Null geodesic in cosmic fluid      107Ч108
Null geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime      86Ч87 89 95
Number counts      17 115Ч117 134Ч136
Numerical coincidences      136Ч139
Object horizon      see "Horizon"
Olbers' paradox      4Ч5 114Ч115
Orbits in Schwarzschild metric      81Ч83 100
Orthogonal metric      66
Oscillating universe models      132Ч133
Oscillations in early universe      146Ч150
Pair production in fireball      154Ч155
Parallax      6Ч8
Parallax, statistical      9
Parsec      7
Particle horizon      see "Horizon"
Penzias, A., and Wilson, R.      142
Perfect cosmological principle      22 133Ч134
Perihelion      see "Precession of perihelion"
Planck's law      141Ч142
Pound Ч Rebka experiment      45
Precession of perihelion      28Ч30 36 79Ч85
Pressure in early universe      146Ч150
Primaeval fireball      see "Ylem"
Proper distance      see "Distance"
Proper motion      8
Proper time      see "Time"
Pythagoras' theorem      48Ч50 63
QSOs (quasistellar objects)      4 20 87 117Ч118 132
Quantum gravity      92 156Ч157
Radial coordinate      68 72 74 104Ч105
Radiation-dominated era      140Ч141 148
Radio background radiation      5 115
Radio sources, evolution of      116Ч118
Radio sources, evolution of and homogeneity of universe      103
Recombination era      144 151
Red shift and binary stars      101
Red shift and cosmic scale factor      107Ч109
Red shift and Earth's motion through cosmic fluid      143Ч144
Red shift and equivalence principle      45Ч46
Red shift and Hubble's law      17Ч22
Red shift and luminosity      112Ч113
Red shift and number counts      115Ч116
Red shift and steady state theory      134
Red shift in Schwarzschild space-time      96
Red shift of fireball photons      141
Red shift of QSO's      117Ч118 132
Rigid coordinate rods      47 68 72 74
Robertson Ч Walker metric      105
Sandage, A.      113
Scale factor      see "Cosmic scale factor"
Schwarzschild spacetime      74Ч102
Schwarzschild spacetime, central singularity      100Ч101
Schwarzschild spacetime, coordinate singularity      91Ч93
Schwarzschild spacetime, metric      76
Schwarzschild spacetime, null geodesics      85Ч91
Schwarzschild spacetime, timelike geodesics      79Ч85
Scott effect      15 112
Separation      51 56Ч59
Separation, Robertson Ч Walker      105
Separation, Schwarzschild      76
Shapiro, I.      90 139
Signature of metric      55
Slipher, V.      18
Space, absolute      33Ч34 35 37 39
Spacetime      36 44 47 55
Spacetime, cosmic      101Ч105
Spacetime, Schwarzschild      74Ч76
Spectral shift      see "Red shift"
Static limit      99
Steady state theory      22 113 118 133Ч136
Summation convention      53
Temperature of cosmic black-body radiation      104 141Ч145
Tensor, curvature      67
Tensor, metric      53
Theorema egregium      160Ч163
Tidal effects      44
Time, absolute      23
Time, arrow of      133
Time, cosmic      104
Time, gravitational dilation      46 72 96Ч97
Time, proper      48Ч51 76Ч78
Time, relativistic delay      88Ч91
Time, Schwarzschild      74Ч75
Time, special-relativity dilation      49Ч50
Tired light effect      21
Turbulence in early universe      153
Twin paradox      see "Clock paradox"
Venus, echo from      90Ч91
Venus, precession of orbit      84
Viscous damping in early universe      146 150Ч152
von Leibniz, G.      37
von Soldner, J.      85 179
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