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Alter O., Yamamoto Y. — Quantum Measurement of a Single System
Alter O., Yamamoto Y. — Quantum Measurement of a Single System

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Название: Quantum Measurement of a Single System

Авторы: Alter O., Yamamoto Y.

Аннотация:

A groundbreaking look at the nature of quantum mechanics.

With new technologies permitting the observation and manipulation of single quantum systems, the quantum theory of measurement is fast becoming a subject of experimental investigation in laboratories worldwide. This original new work addresses open fundamental questions in quantum mechanics in light of these experimental developments.

Using a novel analytical approach developed by the authors, Quantum Measurement of a Single System provides answers to three long-standing questions that have been debated by such thinkers as Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Schrodinger. It establishes the quantum theoretical limits to information obtained in the measurement of a single system on the quantum wavefunction of the system, the time evolution of the quantum observables associated with the system, and the classical potentials or forces which shape this time evolution. The technological relevance of the theory is also demonstrated through examples from atomic physics, quantum optics, and mesoscopic physics.

Suitable for professionals, students, or readers with a general interest in quantum mechanics, the book features recent formulations as well as humorous illustrations of the basic concepts of quantum measurement. Researchers in physics and engineering will find Quantum Measurement of a Single System a timely guide to one of the most stimulating fields of science today.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 2001

Количество страниц: 136

Добавлена в каталог: 19.03.2010

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
(QND)      see quantum measurement nondemolition
(QND) nondestructive measurement      see quantum measurement nondestructive
Adiabatic approximation      5 66 67 69-73 118
Adiabatic measurement      see quantum measurement adiabatic
Aharonov      3 11 12 61 65 67
Annihilation operator      54
Atom, two-level      6 77-86 89 113 114
Back-action noise      7 24 28 29 32 45 47 49 91 99 104 106 108
Bohr      3 12
Brownian motion      24 37-39 44 47
Channel, quantum, encoding and decoding of information      42 43
Coherences of the density operator      see density operator coherences
Collapse      see reduction communication
Communication channel, quantum, upper limit to capacity      34 41 43
Complementarity      3 12
Completeness of quantum mechanics      8 94 105 109 116 119
Contractive state measurement      see quantum measurement contractive
Creation operator      54
Density operator, coherences of      83
Density operator, of a mixed state      41
Density operator, of a pure state after a measurement      18
Density operator, of a pure state before a measurement      17
Dephasing (or decoherence)      1 2 6 75 78 83 90 91 113 118
Destructive measurement      see quantum measurement destructive
Disentanglement      see entanglement
Displacement (or translation) operator      59
Doppler speed meter      99
Einstein, I      107 109 of
Electromagnetic cavity, single-mode      6 77 78-86 89 114
Energy eigenstate      3 12 65 73
Energy number of quanta of      7 8 42 78 85 92 94 95 111 116
Entanglement (of a quantum probe and a quantum signal)      see interaction unitary
Entanglement (of a quantum probe and a quantum signal), approximated as disentanglement      see adiabatic approximation
Entanglement (of a quantum probe and a quantum signal), measurement without      see quantum measurement without
Entanglement entropy      41
Ergodicity      21
Estimation      12 13 15
Estimation of expectation value      18 19
Estimation of uncertainty      19-21
Evolution      see time evolution; Heisenberg and Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger pictures
Force, fundamental quantum limit to detection of      2 7-9 91-116 118-121
Frame of reference      77 80 81 88 89
Free mass (or particle), driven by a classical force      7 8 91-109 110 113 115 119 121
Frequency difference      97-99
Generalized projection operator      27 49 50
Gravitational wave detection      2 91
Hamiltonian of a free mass driven by a classical force      95
Hamiltonian of a harmonic oscillator driven by a classical force      59 110
Hamiltonian of a two-level atom in a single-mode cavity      78
Hamiltonian of two coupled harmonic oscillators      54 68
Harmonic oscillator(s)      52-56 68-71 coupled)1
Harmonic oscillator(s), driven by a classical force      2 7-9 91-95 118-121
Harmonic oscillator(s), state, coherent      55 59
Harmonic oscillator(s), state, energy (or number) eigenstate      68-71 111-115
Harmonic oscillator(s), state, squeezed      7 52-61 92 96
Heisenberg      6 28 54 77 78 86-89 95 105-107 118 Heisenberg;
Heisenberg microscope      105
Interaction (of a quantum probe with a quantum signal), unitary      12 17 24 51 62 63 66 86 unitary)
Interaction (of a quantum probe with a quantum signal), unitary, of a free mass and a wavepacket of light      97-99
Interaction (of a quantum probe with a quantum signal), unitary, of two harmonic oscillators      54-56 68-71
Interaction (of a quantum probe with a quantum signal), unitary, of two wavepackets of light, linear, in a beam splitter      54-56
Interaction (of a quantum probe with a quantum signal), unitary, of two wavepackets of light, nonlinear, in a Kerr medium      31 82
Interferometric measurement      see quantum measurement interferometric
Inverse quantum Zeno effect of a single system      89 (see also quantum Zeno effect)
Momentum, change      92 95-99 119
Momentum, generalized      53-58 68-71
Number of quanta of energy      see energy number quantum
Observable(s), canonically conjugate      24 26 28 45 46 49 65 110
Observable(s), commuting      24 33
Observable(s), eigenvalues and eigenstates of      12 13 26 45 48-50 62-64 eigenstate
Observable(s), expectation value and uncertainty of      5 9 13 15 18-21 26-31 67 96 117
Observable(s), noncommuting      67 106 107 109
Observable(s), symmetric      33 34 38 39 44
Observable(s), time-varying      77 81 88 89
Pauli's first-kind measurement      see quantum measurement Pauli's
Phase, relative      1 8 31 32 56 60 63 66-68 82 94 111-116 121
Photon-number      5 24 26 31-48 77 80-86 89 114
Picture, Heisenberg      6 54 78 86-90 118
Picture, Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger      6 55 77 86-90 118
Position change (or displacement)      92 99-105 119
Position, generalized      53-58 68-71
Precision measurements      2 7-9 91 93
Preparation (or resetting) of a quantum state      see quantum wavefunction (or state) preparation
Probability, conservation of      13 115
Probability, density, after a measurement      18
Probability, density, before a measurement      18
Probability, density, conditional      19
Probability, of transition      27 30 32 66 69 111 112
Probability-amplitude operator      17 32-34 48 50 82 88 89
Projection postulate      3 12 13 26 31 44
Projection postulate, generalized      5 17 24
Protective measurement      see quantum measurement protective
QND condition, necessary      24
QND condition, sufficient      24 49 53 62
Quadrature amplitudes, slowly varying      5 8 24 26 31-33 45-48 57 64 82 94 110 115
Quantum measurement, adiabatic      3 5 11 12 65-73 118
Quantum measurement, contractive state      7 92 99-105 113
Quantum measurement, destructive      1 8 94 113 116 119
Quantum measurement, interferometric      97-99
Quantum measurement, nondemoliton (QND)      5 7 8 23 50 53 62 64 77 82-86 88 89 92 94 111 113 114 116 119
Quantum measurement, nondestructive      1 2
Quantum measurement, of two entangled particles      107
Quantum measurement, Pauli's first-kind      17
Quantum measurement, protective      3 11 12 26 48-50 52 53 58-64 65 67
Quantum measurement, reversible      3
Quantum measurement, simultaneous, of noncommuting observables      8 94 105-109 110 115 119
Quantum measurement, utilizing a priori information      see quantum measurement without
Quantum measurement, von Neumann's (or ideal)      12 14
Quantum measurement, weak (or imprecise)      13 16 31-45
Quantum measurement, without entanglement      5 51 64 117
Quantum wavefunction (or state), change (or evolution) of, deterministic, in unitary interaction or time evolution      5 12 24 25 49 51-56 62 64 73 78 86 117 unitary; unitary)
Quantum wavefunction (or state), change (or evolution) of, stochastic, in a quantum measurement process      3 5 12 24 25 49 51 52 55 62-64 89
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of      see reduction
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of, meaning of, epistemological (or statistical)      2 11 15 26 31 53 64 67 68 73 117 118
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of, meaning of, ontological (or physical)      2 3 6 11 61 64 65 67 117 118
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of, of a single system, impossibility of, determining      3-9 11-21 23-50 51-64 65-73 77 86-90 92 104 105 115 117 118
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of, of an ensemble, determination of      2 5 11 15 18 20 21 35-37 39 40 44 53 57 58 60 61 63
Quantum wavefunction (or state), collapse (or reduction) of, preparation (or resetting) of      7 8 12 17 48 62 63 86 92 94 95 99-104 105 113 119
Quantum Zeno effect      6 75 76
Quantum Zeno effect, of a single system      2 6 9 75-90 92 94 113-115 118
Rabi oscillations      80 81
Rabi oscillations, damped      82-86
Reduction (or collapse)      3-6 7 12 14 15 21 23-50 51-53 62-64 67 70-73 75 78 89 117 118
Reversible measurement      see quantum measurement reversible
Rotating wave approximation      78
Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger      6 55 77 86-90 107 118 Schr
Signal-to-noise ratio      61 111 112
Simultaneous measurement of noncommuting observables      see quantum measurement simultaneous of
Spin 1, 2, 3 fictitious      78-81 89 114
Standard quantum limit (SQL)      7 8 91-96 99-105 113 119
Statistics of the result of a quantum measurement of a single system      15 17-19
Statistics of the result of a quantum measurement of an ensemble, II      13 15 20 21
Statistics of the result of the results of a series of measurements of a single system      5 13 15 19-21
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary      see also interaction of a quantum probe with a quantum signal unitary;
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary, limit to monitoring of      see quantum Zeno effect of a single system
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary, of a free mass driven by a classical force      95
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary, of a harmonic oscillator driven by a classical force      110 111
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary, of a two-level atom in a single-mode cavity      80 81
Time evolution of a single quantum system, unitary, of a wavepacket of light driven by a classical electromagnetic field      58-60
Transition probability      see probability of
Uncertainty principle      5 8 9 25 28 49 94 99 105-109 116 117 119
Unitarity      see conservation of probability
Unitary interaction      see interaction unitary
Unitary time evolution      see time evolution unitary
von Neumann      12 (see also projection postulate; quantum measurement von
Wavepacket(s) of light, coupled, linear coupling, in a beam splitter      54-56
Wavepacket(s) of light, coupled, nonlinear coupling, in a Kerr medium      31 82
Wavepacket(s) of light, coupled, nonlinear coupling, in a parametric amplifier      33 45-48
Wavepacket(s) of light, driven by a classical electromagnetic field      61
Wavepacket(s) of light, state, coherent      55 58 59 61 68 71
Wavepacket(s) of light, state, photon-number eigenstate      24 39
Wavepacket(s) of light, state, squeezed      1 5 24 31-48
Weak (or imprecise) measurement      see quantum measurement weak
Zeno, quantum      see inverse quantum Zeno effect; quantum Zeno effect
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