The earth has finite resources in terms of fossil origin fuel and a finite capacity for disposal of waste. Biopolymers may offer a solution to both these issues in the long-term. This Rapra Review Report sets out to examine the current trends in biopolymer science. The different types of biological polymers are discussed, and the chemistry and synthesis of some key biopolymers are described. This review is accompanied by over 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading on this subject.