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Название: Environmentally Benign Manufacturing
Авторы: Gutowski T.G., Murphy C.F., Allen D.T.
This report reviews the status of "environmentally benign manufacturing" (EBM) technologies, applications, and policies in Europe and Japan in comparison to those in the United States. Topics covered include metals and metal manufacturing, polymers, automotive applications, electronics, and energy-related issues. In addition to reviewing specific technologies and applications in the above areas, the report covers broader issues of government policies affecting environmental issues in manufacturing, corporate strategies and vision with respect to these issues, economic drivers influencing the development of EBM, and relevant research infrastructure. The panel’s findings include the following: Europe leads in most governmental activities, Japan in industrial activities, and the results for research and development are mixed. The United States leads in financial and legal liability concerns, water conservation, decreased industrial releases to air and water, and research in polymers and long term electronics, but follows in all other areas. In the area of university educational activities, and both industry and government sponsorship of these, it is clear that Europe leads, followed by the United States and then Japan. Overall, therefore, the United States ranks third behind Europe and Japan. Additional findings are outlined in the panel’s executive summary.