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Nilsson N.J. Ч Problem-Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence
Nilsson N.J. Ч Problem-Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence

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Ќазвание: Problem-Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence

јвтор: Nilsson N.J.

язык: en

–убрика: Computer science/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

»здание: 1st edition

√од издани€: 1971

 оличество страниц: 255

ƒобавлена в каталог: 05.07.2009

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
$P_1$ refutations      227 229
15-puzzle      3
15-puzzle, graph of      4 5
15-puzzle, history of      12
15-puzzle, nondeterministic program for      20Ч27
15-puzzle, operators      4
15-puzzle, states      4
8-puzzle, evaluation functions for      56 66
8-puzzle, examples of solution, breadth-first search of      45Ч17
8-puzzle, examples of solution, depth-first search of      50 52
8-puzzle, examples of solution, ordered search of      55Ч57 66Ч68
8-puzzle, operators for      20Ч21
8-puzzle, rewriting rules for      20Ч21
8-queens problem      41(2Ч5) 92
Action schedules      112
Admissibility of A*      59Ч61
Admissibility of orderedЧsearch algorithm for AND/OR trees      131Ч130
Admissibility of search algorithms      59
Advice taker      11 213Ч214
Algebra, solving word problems in      212
Algorithm A*      59
Algorithm A* (contТd), admissibility of      59Ч61
Algorithm A* (contТd), efficiency of      62
Algorithm A* (contТd), optimality of      61Ч65
Alpha-beta procedure, alpha cutoffs in      145
Alpha-beta procedure, alpha values in      145
Alpha-beta procedure, beta cutoffs in      145 147
Alpha-beta procedure, beta values in      145
Alpha-beta procedure, combined with ordering procedure      148Ч149
Alpha-beta procedure, efficiency of      147Ч148
Alpha-beta procedure, example of      146
Alpha-beta procedure, for searching game trees      140Ч149
Alpha-beta procedure, history of      152
Alphabetic variants      174
Ancestor, in graphs      22Ч23
Ancestry filter criterion      221Ч222 229
Ancestry filter criterion, completeness of      220Ч223
Ancestry-filtered form (AFF)      219Ч223 229
Ancestry-filtered form (AFF), interpretation as a state-space search problem      231(8Ч5)
AND nodes in AXD/OR graphs      87
AND/OR graphs, AND nodes in      87
AND/OR graphs, cycles in      123Ч124
AND/OR graphs, definition of      83 87Ч88
AND/OR graphs, depth of a node in      124
AND/OR graphs, examples of      88 89
AND/OR graphs, for geometry problem      100
AND/OR graphs, for GrundyТs game      111
AND/OR graphs, for monkey-and-bananas problem      108
AND/OR graphs, for symbolic integration problem      96
AND/OR graphs, OR nodes in      87
AND/OR graphs, representation by nondeterministic programs      90Ч93
AND/OR graphs, search graph of      118
AND/OR graphs, search methods for      123Ч120
AND/OR graphs, solved nodes in      88Ч89
AND/OR graphs, to represent games      110 113
AND/OR graphs, unsolvable nodes in      90 117
AND/OR trees, as game trees      110 113 137
AND/OR trees, breadth-first search of      119Ч121
AND/OR trees, costs of solutions      120Ч128
AND/OR trees, definition of      119
AND/OR trees, depth-first search of      121Ч123 124
AND/OR trees, evaluation functions for searching      128Ч133
AND/OR trees, generalizing search methods so they apply to AND/OR graphs      123Ч126
AND/OR trees, merit functions for searching      151
AND/OR trees, node selection in      136
AND/OR trees, optimality of search methods for      136
AND/OR trees, ordered-search algorithm for      130Ч131 132 133
AND/OR trees, search methods for      119Ч155
AND/OR trees, tip nodes of      128
Answer extraction in program writing      201Ч205
Answer extraction, example      189Ч191
Answer extraction, literature on      213
Answer extraction, process of complete description of      191Ч201
Answer extraction, process of summary of      199Ч200
Answer extraction, unification set in      192
Answer statements      190Ч191
Answer statements containing Skolem functions      197Ч198
Answer statements derived from wffs containing universally quantified variables      196Ч198
Answer statements, general form of      195Ч196
Answer statements, nonuniqueness of      201
Applicability wffs in applications of predicate calculus to state-space problem solving      206Ч209
Arcs, cost of      46 48 126
Arcs, definition in graphs      22Ч23
Arcs, irrevocable      40(2Ч2)
Arrays, rewriting rules for      20Ч21
Artificial evolution      9
Artificial intelligence, approaches to      9Ч10
Artificial intelligence, definition of      viiЧviii 1 114(4Ч5)
Artificial intelligence, overviews of      9
Artificial intelligence, surveys of      12
Artificial neurons      9
Assignment statement in nondeterministic programs      25
atom      174
Atomic formulas      15S
Attention control in searching AND/OR trees      151
Backtrack programming      75
Backtracking in depth-first search      49 76
Base clause      219
Bidirectional search      76
Blind search      44
Branch and bound methods      11 76
Branch and bound methods, example of      77(3-3)
Branches in nondeterministic programs      25 91Ч93
Branching factor, effective      73 74
Breadth-first search applied to S-puzzle      45Ч47
Breadth-first search in resolution theorem proving      217
Breadth-first search of AND/OR trees, algorithm for      119Ч121
Breadth-first search of AND/OR trees, flow chart for      120
Breadth-first search of state-space graphs      45Ч47
Breadth-first search of state-space graphs, algorithm for      45
Breadth-first search of state-space graphs, flow chart for      46
Checkers program      151 153
Chess programs      152Ч153
Choice functions in nondeterministic programs      38
Chromosome matching problems      11
Clause form      165Ч168
clauses      165Ч168
Clauses, factors of      178
Clauses, negative      227
Clauses, positive      227
Combined strategies in resolution theorem proving      227
Completeness of resolution      181Ч183
Completeness of resolution, relative to a model      225Ч226
Completeness of resolution, relative to ancestry filter      220Ч223
Completeness of set-of-support      223Ч224 226Ч227
Conjunction of wffs      161 162
Conjunctive normal form      167 see
Consistency assumption      63
Construction lines in geometry theorem proving      102Ч103
Constructive proofs      188
Control problems as examples of state-space problem solving      33Ч34
Control theory, state spaces in      10 33Ч34
Correctness of nondeterministic programs      38
Correctness of programs      39 213
Costs of arcs      46 48 126
Costs of solutions in AND/OR trees      126Ч128
Cycles in searching AND/OR graphs      123Ч124
Davis Ч Putnam procedure      1S4
DEDUCOM      212
Delete and add rules      207
Depth of a node      48Ч49 53 124
Depth of a refutation      180
Depth ratio      77
Depth-first search applied to S-puzzle      50 52
Depth-first search heuristics for      53Ч54
Depth-first search of AND/OR trees      121Ч124
Depth-first search of AND/OR trees, algorithm for      123
Depth-first search of AND/OR trees, flow chart for      122
Depth-first search of state-space graphs      4SЧ50
Depth-first search of state-space graphs, algorithm for      50
Depth-first search of state-space graphs, flow chart for      51
Descendant in graphs      22Ч23
Diagram, use in geometry theorem proving      100Ч102
Differences, history of use      112Ч113
Differences, in monkey-and-bananas problem      105Ч109
Differences, in problem reduction      105Ч109
Disagreement set in unification algorithm      177
Disjunctions of wffs      162
Distribution problems as example of state-space problem solving      30Ч32
Distribution problems, literature on      39
Domains in predicate calculus      159
Dynamic ordering, use in searching game trees      149
Dynamic programming      75
Effective branching factor      73 74
Efficiency of search algorithms      62 72Ч75 147Ч148
Empty clause      175
Equality in predicate calculus      183Ч184
Evaluation functions as used in game trees      138
Evaluation functions as used in heuristic search      54Ч55
Evaluation functions as used in searching AND/OR trees      128Ч133
Evaluation functions in resolution theorem proving      229Ч230
Evolution, artificial      9
Existential quantifiers      163
Existential quantifiers, elimination of      166Ч167
Existential quantifiers, realization of, in answer extraction      189Ч201
Expansion of nodes in graphs      44 117
Explicit graphs      23
Factor of a clause      174
Failure nodes      172
Fewest-components strategy in resolution theorem proving      228
Fixed-ordering search procedure      148Ч149
Flow charts for breadth-first search      46 120
Flow charts for depth-first search      51 122
Flow charts for nondeterministic programs      24 91
Flow charts for ordered search      132
Flow charts for uniform cost search      49
Flow problems      see Distribution problems
Formalization for state-space problem solving      209Ч212
Frame problem      212
Function letters      158
Functional composition in program writing      201Ч205
Game trees as AND/OR trees      110 113 137
Game trees, alpha-beta search of      140Ч149
Game trees, definition of      110
Game trees, minimax search of      137Ч140
Game trees, search of      137Ч150
Game trees, search of using dynamic ordering      149
Game trees, search of using fixed ordering      148Ч149
Game trees, static evaluation functions for      138
Games as example problems      3
Games, books about      12
Games, GrundyТs      110Ч112 113
Games, Last One Loses      114(4Ч6)
Games, legal moves in      110
Games, solution by problem-reduction approach      109Ч112
Games, solution of      137Ч150
Games, ticЧtacЧtoe      139Ч143 154(5Ч6)
General Problem Solver (GPS)      10 113
General problem solver (GPS), method of operation      103Ч109
Geometry theorem proving      97Ч103
Geometry theorem proving, adding construction lines in      102Ч103
Geometry theorem proving, literature on      112
Geometry theorem proving, use of diagram in      100Ч102
Geometry theorem proving, use of models in      100Ч102
GO, program for      153
Goal nodes      23
Goal states      22
Goal wff      206
Grammar in syntax analysis      28Ч30
Graphs, refutation or proof      180Ч182
Ground instance      168 176
GrundyТs Game      110Ч112 113
Herbrand base      169Ч170
Herbrand procedures      184
Herbrand universe      168Ч169
HerbrandТs theorem      172n
Heuristic function in AND/OR tree-search algorithms      128Ч131
Heuristic function in state-space search algorithms      58Ч59
Heuristic function, role in determining heuristic power      65Ч68
Heuristic information possessed by a search algorithm      62
Heuristic information to focus or reduce search      44 53Ч54
Heuristic information, uses of      53Ч54
Heuristic power      54
Heuristic power, role of heuristic functions in determining      65Ч68
Heuristic search      44 53Ч54
Heuristics, miscellaneous      71Ч72 136Ч137
Implementations of theorem-proving programs      230
Implication signs, elimination of      165
Implicit graphs      23
Inference nodes      174Ч175
Information retrieval      2 see
Integration, symbolic      11 93Ч97 112 114(4Ч5)
Intelligence of computers      8
Intelligence, definition of      2
Intelligence, theory of      2
Interpretations      see Models in predicate calculus
Introspection in design of problem solvers      9Ч10
Irrevocable arcs      40(2Ч2)
Kalah, programs for      153
Kalah, use for comparing strategies      152
Kalah, use of dynamic ordering in      149
Key operators      104Ч105
Last One Loses (game)      114(4Ч6)
Learning by machine      viii
Learning strategies      151
Legal moves in games      110
Level bound in unit-preference strategy      228
Level of a refutation      180
Literal      168
Logic in problem solving      6Ч7 156Ч157 187Ч216
Logic, higher-order      154
Logic, second-order      184 see
Logic-theory (LT) machine      13(1Ч4) 112
Logical connectives in predicate calculus      158
M & N procedure, literature on      152
Mac Hac, chess program      152Ч153
Mass spectrograph analysis problems      11
Matrix of a wff      167
Max prist of AND/ON solution trees      126Ч127
Meaning (semantics) of predicate calculus      157 159Ч161
Means-ends analysis      113
Merges in resolution theorem proving      224 229
Merit functions      151 see
Minimax procedure for searching game trees      137Ч140
Minimax procedure, example using ticЧtacЧtoe      139Ч140 141Ч143
Minimax procedure, improvements on      150 152
Missionanes-and-cannibals problem      39
Model strategies in resolution theorem proving      224Ч227 229
Model strategies, completeness of      225Ч226
Models in predicate calculus      159 171Ч172 224Ч225
Modus ponens as an instance of resolution      179
Monkey-and-bananas problem, AND/OR graph for      108
Monkey-and-bananas problem, as illustration of applications of predicate calculus      206Ч212
Monkey-and-bananas problem, as illustration of problem-reduction approach      105Ч109
Monkey-and-bananas problem, as illustration of state-description schemas      35Ч37
Monkey-and-bananas problem, as illustration of use of differences      105Ч109
Monkey-and-bananas problem, graph for      37
Multilated checkerboard problem      41(2Ч7)
Multiple      150
Narrows in a search space      85 103Ч109
Natural language, processing of      2 12
Natural language, translation of      188Ч189 212
Negative clauses      227
Neurons, artificial      9
Nodes, AND      87
Nodes, definition in graphs      22Ч23
Nodes, depth of      48Ч40 53 124
Nodes, expansion of      44 117
Nodes, failure      172
Nodes, goal      23
1 2 3
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