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Название: Random marginal agreement coefficients: rethinking the adjustment for chance when measuring agreement
Автор: Fay M.P,
Agreement coefficients quantify how well a set of instruments agree in measuring some response on a population of interest. Many standard agreement coefficients (e.g. kappa for nominal, weighted kappa for ordinal, and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for continuous responses) may indicate increasing agreement as the marginal distributions of the two instruments become more different even as the true cost of disagreement stays the same or increases. This problem has been described for the kappa coefficients; here we describe it for the CCC. We propose a solution for all types of responses in the form of random marginal agreement coefficients (RMACs), which use a different adjustment for chance than the standard agreement coefficients. Standard agreement coefficients model chance agreement using expected agreement between two independent random variables each distributed according to the marginal distribution of one of the instruments. RMACs adjust for chance by modeling two independent readings both from the mixture distribution that averages the two marginal distributions. In other words, both independent readings represent first a random choice of instrument, then a random draw from the marginal distribution of the chosen instrument. The advantage of the resulting RMAC is that differences between the two marginal distributions will not induce greater apparent agreement. As with the standard agreement coefficients, the RMACs do not require any assumptions about the bivariate distribution of the random variables associated with the two instruments. We describe the RMAC for nominal, ordinal and continuous data, and show through the delta method how to approximate the variances of some important special cases.