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Aczel A.D. Ч Descartes' Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe
Aczel A.D. Ч Descartes' Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe

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Ќазвание: Descartes' Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, Mysticism, and the Quest to Understand the Universe

јвтор: Aczel A.D.

јннотаци€:

René Descartes (1596Ч1650) is one of the towering and central figures in Western philosophy and mathematics. His apothegm УCogito, ergo sumФ marked the birth of the mind-body problem, while his creation of so-called Cartesian coordinates has made our intellectual conquest of physical space possible.

But Descartes had a mysterious and mystical side, as well. Almost certainly a member of the occult brotherhood of the Rosicrucians, he kept a secret notebook, now lost, most of which was written in code. After DescartesТs death, Gottfried Leibniz, inventor of calculus and by common consent the greatest mathematician in history, moved to Paris in search of this notebookЦand eventually found it in the possession of Claude Clerselier, a friend of DescartesТs. Liebniz called on Clerselier and was allowed to copy only a couple of pagesЦwhich, though written in code, he amazingly deciphered there on the spot. LiebnizТs hastily scribbled notes are all we have today of DescartesТs notebook.

Why did Descartes keep a secret notebook, and what were its contents? The answers to these questions will lead the reader on an exciting, swashbuckling journey, and offer a fascinating look at one of the great figures of Western culture.


язык: en

–убрика: –азное/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

√од издани€: 2005

 оличество страниц: 273

ƒобавлена в каталог: 11.06.2008

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
"Cogito, ergo sum" statement      5 156Ч157
"Est et Now" (Ausonius)      58 59 105 246n
"Fable of the World"      140Ч141
"Father P."      124
"Responses to Objections" (Descartes)      202
666 numerology      76 107 110 215 219
Adam, Charles      202 204 220 243n
Admiranda methodus novae philosophiae Renati Descartes (Voetius)      177Ч178
Aeneid (Virgil)      52
Ahmes papyrus      116
Al-Jabr wa-al'Muqabalah (Al-Khowarizmi)      116Ч117
Al-Khowarizmi, Muhammad ibn Musa      90 116Ч117
Alchemy      14 50 74Ч75 79 87 88 90 98 99 102Ч103 121 159Ч160 210 213
Algebra, Arab origins of      44 90 116Ч117
Algebra, Descartes' contributions to      75 77 116 120Ч121 160
Algebra, equations in      32 44 45 72Ч73 74 116Ч120 121 160
Algebra, geometry unified with (analytic geometry)      5 45Ч46 56 57 59 69Ч71 79 131Ч132 136 150 155 160 162Ч166 218 224Ч225 228 235 237
Algebra, teaching of      32 170Ч171
Algorithms      4Ч5 90
Alpha (Greek)      121
Anatomy      6 148Ч149 157Ч158 195
Andrea, Johann Valentin      87 89 102Ч103
angles      44Ч45 45 68 69 107
Apollo      65 66Ч67 68
Archimedes      30 105 120 232 233
Ariew, Roger      5
Aristotle      30 89 176 186 208
Aristotle University Observatory      237Ч238 257n
Arithmetic      31Ч32 109 160 162
Arithmetica (Diophantus)      43Ч44
Arnauld, Antoine      175Ч176
Ars brcvis (Lull)      47Ч48 209Ч210
Ars magna (Cardano)      119Ч120
Astrology      14 74Ч75 79 88 90 99 110 121 159Ч160
Astronomy      61 62 90 103Ч104 108
Atheism      176 177Ч179
Ausonius      58 59 246n
Baillet, Adrien      25 36 40 53 56 57 72 78 82 83 84 87Ч88 93Ч95 97 98 101 107 125 127 128 146 169 181 194Ч195 196 197 203Ч204 230 243n 244nЧ245n
Basilica chymica (Croll)      102 103
Beeckman, Isaac      41Ч48 51Ч52 56 62 79 80Ч81 95 104Ч105 111 131Ч136 143Ч144
Berzelius, Joens Jakob      199Ч200
Bible      76 87 107 109 110 111 137 176Ч177 184 215 219
Big bang theory      238Ч239
Body vs. soul debate      6 149 158 168 174
Bohemia      51 52 53Ч54 77Ч79 82 97
Boinehurg, Johann Christian von      210Ч211
Brahe, Tycho      80 103 104Ч105
Bramer, Benjamin      108
Brochard, Jeanne Sain      21
Brochard, Rend      21
Buergi, Jost      105Ч106 107
Calcul de Monsieur Des Cartes (Descartes)      209
Calculus      2 10 67 232Ч235
Calvinism      49 188Ч189 198
Cardano, Girolamo      118Ч120 250n
Cartesian coordinate system      See coordinate system
Cartesianism      5Ч6 95 96 114Ч115 124 125 133 140 151Ч157 168 170 173 174Ч179 208Ч209 213Ч214 218Ч219 229Ч230
Cartesii opera philosophica (Descartes)      209
Cassini, Gian Domenico      212
Catholics      6 20Ч21 27 33 39 49Ч50 51 77 78 88 89 102Ч103 104 125Ч133 136Ч144 152Ч153 159Ч160 176 188Ч189 192 197Ч199 204Ч205 211 225 228 251n
Chanut, Pierre      11 146 181Ч187 188 190Ч191 194Ч203 205
Charlet, Pere      29
Chatellerault      17Ч18 18 21 22 113
Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreuz, The (Andrea)      87 102Ч103
Chevalier de I'aigle du pelican ou Rosecroix      87
Christian I of Anhalt      102
Christina, Queen of Sweden      11 171 172 179 180Ч205
Christina, Queen with Descartes      190
circles      31 69Ч70
Circles as geometric figures      45 70 157
Circles, parhelic      115
Circles, properties of      215
Clerselier, Claude      11Ч12 14 16 146 148 180Ч181 188 190 203 204 212 214 230 231 232 234 243n
codes      207 209Ч210 214Ч215 219Ч220
Cogitationes privatae (Descartes)      60Ч61
Cohen, Gustave      132
Combinatorics      207 209Ч212 214
comets      103Ч105 110
Compasses, navigational      3Ч4 74
Compasses, proportional      106Ч108 106 108
Compasses, simple      30Ч32 31 64 66 67 68 87 107 162Ч166 215
Confessio fraternitatis      87
Contradiction      156Ч157
Coordinate system      3Ч5 57 69Ч71 79 121 160 161 162Ч166 228 235
Copernicus      6 89 104 130 132 136 139 142 152Ч153 175 222 223
Corpus poetarum      58Ч59 246n
Cosmology      2 13Ч14 62 136 140 213Ч214 220Ч228 224 236Ч241 240Ч241
Cossists      121
Cossists, early notation of      121
Costabel, Pierre      75 108 219 229 230
Couhe, Abelde      113
Croll, Oswald      102 103
Cube, doubling of      66Ч69 69 162Ч166 247n
Cubes      66Ч69 69 162Ч166 214Ч215 215 216 216 218 225 227 247n
Cuvier, G.      200
De arte combinatorial (Leibniz)      210
De solidorum dementis (Descartes)      212Ч228
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), as "Item M"      202Ч203
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), author's research on      1Ч9
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), cosmological implications of      2 13Ч14 220Ч228 236Ч241
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), examples from      15 214 226
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), F+V-E-2 formula in      227Ч228 229
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), Leibniz's copy of      2 10Ч16 15 56 60 75 106 109 148 203 212Ч221 214 219 226 229 230Ч233 243nЧ244n 256n
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), Ohmpica section of      13Ч14 56 57 60 61 62 79 100Ч101 202 213
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), Preambles section of      1Ч2 12 13 38Ч39 60 73 202 212Ч213
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), recovery of      2 10Ч14 203 204 219Ч220
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), regular solids in      215Ч219 221 222Ч228 237Ч241 240
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), Rosicrucian influence on      74 101Ч112 159Ч160 212Ч213 215
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), symbolic language of      1Ч2 12 14Ч16 79 98 101Ч102 121 138Ч139 140 160 202 214Ч215 219Ч220 225Ч227 230
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), title of      213
De solidorum dementis (Descartes), writing of      38 56 57 60 95 212Ч213 221
Dee, John      50Ч51
Delian problem      66Ч69 77 162Ч166 247n
Delos      64Ч66 65 68
Democritica (Descartes)      202
Desargues, Girard      99 127
Descartes (Rodis-Lewis)      25 79
Descartes and His Contemporaries (Grene and Ariew, eds.)      5
Descartes Museum      19
Descartes, Anne Morin      23
Descartes, Claude Ferrand      24 29
Descartes, Jeanne Brochard      17Ч18 21 23 95
Descartes, Joachim      17Ч19 21 24 25 34 38 95 96 113 114 122 180 244n
Descartes, Pierre      24
Descartes, Rene, "masks" of      1 12 38 61 90 152
Descartes, Rene, "oven" dreams of      55Ч63 64 79 83 105 155 246n
Descartes, Rene, animal dissection      148Ч149 149
Descartes, Rene, as apolitical      48Ч49 53 55Ч56 77Ч81
Descartes, Rene, as Catholic      20Ч21 23 39 51 60 115 129 132Ч133 146 176 188Ч189 192 197Ч199 204Ч205
Descartes, Rene, as genius      23Ч24 30 43 46Ч47 56 59 80Ч81 125 136Ч137 154Ч155
Descartes, Rene, as late riser      29 30 46Ч47 186 189Ч190 191 193
Descartes, Rene, background of      17Ч26 42 187 192
Descartes, Rene, baptism of      21 244n
Descartes, Rene, biographical details for      23 25 36 40 56 57 60 72 78 79 82 83 93Ч95 98 100 107 125 127 128 146 154 156 169 171 172 181 193 194Ч195 196 197 203Ч204 230 243n 244nЧ245n
Descartes, Rene, birth of      18Ч19 22 200
Descartes, Rene, childhood of      20Ч26 28Ч29
Descartes, Rene, complex personality of      9 20Ч21 23 36Ч38 158
Descartes, Rene, correspondence of      25Ч26 47Ч48 52 102 112 132 133Ч136 141Ч144 146 147 148 154 158Ч159 167 169Ч171 172 173 175 176Ч177 178 181Ч187 188 191 192 202 209 231
Descartes, Rene, daughter of      146Ч147
Descartes, Rene, death of      10Ч11 138 188 193Ч205 206 230
Descartes, Rene, disciples of      167Ч173 175Ч176 177 180Ч181 231Ч232
Descartes, Rene, doctoral thesis of      34 56 79 152
Descartes, Rene, duel of      124Ч125
Descartes, Rene, education of      26 27Ч34 35 56 79 152 154 155
Descartes, Rene, estate left by      200Ч203
Descartes, Rene, fame of      124 125 133Ч136 158Ч159 171 174Ч183 187 192 208Ч209 230Ч235
Descartes, Rene, friendships of      8 28 36Ч38 41Ч48 51Ч52 77 82Ч83 96 97Ч98 125 131Ч136 142Ч144 169 167Ч173 180Ч183 186 188 231
Descartes, Rene, funeral of      198Ч199 200 201
Descartes, Rene, governess of      23 26 29 122
Descartes, Rene, grave sices of      8 198 199Ч200 203
Descartes, Rene, health of      25Ч26 28 29Ч30 34 35 148 186 193Ч198
Descartes, Rene, land holdings of      24 95Ч97 113Ч114 122
Descartes, Rene, languages studied by      42 46 60Ч61 94Ч95 158
Descartes, Rene, legal studies of      34 56 79 152
Descartes, Rene, libel charge against      178Ч179
Descartes, Rene, lifestyle of      22Ч25 29Ч30 35Ч39 46Ч47 56 97Ч98 124Ч125 158 186 189Ч190 191 193
Descartes, Rene, love affairs of      36 122Ч125 145Ч147 171 191 252n
Descartes, Rene, manuscript inventory for      56 61 189 201Ч203 204 212
Descartes, Rene, marriage of      145Ч147 171 252n
Descartes, Rene, military service of      24Ч25 29 39Ч54 72 77Ч81 97 114 124 127 129Ч130 155 178
Descartes, Rene, name of      19 42 61Ч62
Descartes, Rene, November 10 as important date for      2 34 41 56Ч57 79 104Ч105 129 236
Descartes, Rene, physical appearance of      35 42 94 188 190
Descartes, Rene, pirates encountered by      93Ч95
Descartes, Rene, poisoning of      197Ч198
Descartes, Rene, pseudonym used by      13 14 73Ч74
Descartes, Rene, published writings of      5 8 73 99 100 112 125 132 136 137Ч138 150Ч151 152 153Ч154 174 175 181 182 203 229Ч230
Descartes, Rene, reclusiveness of      37Ч39 54Ч55 59 82Ч83 125 146 148 158Ч159
Descartes, Rene, religious persecution feared by      6 20Ч21 132Ч133 136Ч144 152Ч153 171 225 228 229
Descartes, Rene, reputation of      133Ч136 159Ч160 167Ч179 181Ч183 229Ч235
Descartes, Rene, scholarly attacks against      171 174Ч179 180 183 188Ч189 192 197Ч199 205 230Ч235
Descartes, Rene, secret notebook of      see De solidorum elemenus (Descartes)
Descartes, Rene, secretiveness of      20Ч21 37Ч39 60Ч61 81 82Ч83 89Ч90 98 132Ч133 136Ч147 152 171 221 225 228
Descartes, Rene, skull of      8Ч9 199Ч200 201 255n
Descartes, Rene, swordsmanship of      30 34 35 39 42 54 94Ч95 124Ч125
Descartes, Rene, transformation experienced by      56Ч58 80 83 104 132Ч133 236
Descartes, Rene, travels of      8 25 39Ч40 51Ч54 72 74 76Ч81 92Ч95 96 114Ч116 122Ч125 130 156 167 172 246n
Descartes, Rene, unpublished writings of      8 10Ч12 21 38 56 60Ч61 79 121 136Ч144 145 152 153Ч154 157 202Ч204 209 212Ч213 221 230Ч235 243n
Descartes, Rene, valets of      34Ч35 38 39 43 54 94 96 123 124 145 188 195 197 201 202
Descartes, Rene, wealth of      24Ч25 34 93Ч97 113Ч114 122 158 188 201Ч202
Descartes, Rene, will of      23 188
Descartes, Rene, with Christina, Queen of Sweden      190
Diner, Father      178
Diophantus      43Ч44
Dioptrique (Descartes)      62 150 153Ч154
Discourse on the Method (Descartes)      32 54Ч55 62 79 115 132 137Ч138 146 150Ч161 168Ч169 175 246n
Dodecahedrons      217 217 218 225 227 239 240
Doubt, principle of      59 92 151 154Ч157 175 177 208Ч209
Dream of Descartes, The (Maritain)      107Ч108
Duke of Hanover      12 173 211 212 231 235
Dutch puzzle      41Ч46 56 59
Earth, circumference of      67 247n
Earth, curvature of      128
Earth, orbit of      136 138 141Ч144
Earth, rotation of      136 138 139
Eckhart, Johann Georg      210
Eddington, Arthur      236
Egypt      91 116 210 218
Einstein, Albert      236 237
Elements (Euclid)      37 43 120 215Ч219 223
Elizabeth, Princess of Bohemia      22 78Ч79 102 167Ч173 170 186 187 191 202 231Ч232
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia      53 78 103 167Ч168
England      10 49 50 126 128 172 232Ч235
Epicurus      185
Epistle to Voetius (Descartes)      176Ч177 202
Equal sign      45 121
Equations, cubic      75 118Ч120 250n
Equations, graphs for      160
Equations, quadratic (second order)      116Ч117
Equations, quartic (fourth order)      72Ч73 119Ч120
Equations, solution of      32 44 45 72Ч73 74 116Ч120 121 160
Equations, substitutions of      165Ч166
Equations, third-order      117 120
Eratosthenes      67 247n
Espinay, M.d'      172
Euclid      30 31 37 43 120 208 215Ч219 223 237
Eudoxus      67 232 233
Euler, Leonhard      228Ч229
Experimenta (Descartes)      202
Fama fraternitatis      84 87 89 103 159 213
Faulhaber, Johann      62Ч63 72Ч77 79 83 98 106Ч107 108 109Ч112 121 178 215
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor      52 130 155 246n
Fermat, Pierre de      43Ч44 99 233
Ferrand, Michel      21 24
Ferrari, Ludovico      119Ч120 250n
Ferro, Scipione del      118
Fior, Antonio Maria      118
Flemming, Admiral      187Ч188
Fontenelle, Bernard de      235
Foucher de Careil, Louis-Alexandre      60 106 219Ч220 244n 256n
Four elements      218
France as Catholic nation      49 125Ч133 141Ч142 251n
France, noble orders in      25 168 190Ч191
France, Swedish relations of      182Ч186 190Ч191 206.
Francine (Descartes' daughter)      146Ч147
Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor      114Ч115
Frederick V, King of Bohemia      49Ч50 51 53Ч54 77Ч79 97 102Ч103 167Ч168
Freinsheimius (Swedish chief librarian)      189
French Academy of Sciences      200 211Ч212 220
French language      46 60Ч61 135 150Ч151 158 159Ч160
French Revolution      199
Gabe, Liider      61 62
Galileo      6 100 106 115 127Ч128 136Ч144 151 152Ч153 208 233 235
Galois, Evariste      165
Gassendi, Pierre      175
Gaukroger, Stephen      172
Geocentric theory      104 175
Geomeme (Descartes)      52 73 150 153Ч154 160 164Ч165 209
Geometry, analytic      5 45Ч46 56 57 59 69Ч71 79 131Ч132 136 150 155 160 162Ч166 218 224Ч225 228 235 237
Geometry, Descartes' contributions to      32 43Ч47 52 73 76Ч77 80 95 98 153Ч154 155 160 162Ч169 209 213Ч214
Geometry, dimensions in      4 166 223 224Ч229 239Ч241 256n
Geometry, Euclidean      30 31 37 43 120 208 215Ч219 223 237
Geometry, Greek approach to      6 30Ч32 37 43 45 46Ч47 59 64 66Ч69 70 71 77 100 107 120 160 162Ч169 208 215Ч219 223 225 237
Geometry, mysticism and      47Ч48 87 109 166
Geometry, non-Euclidean      237
Geometry, proofs and theorems for      31 43Ч45 155 156 164Ч166 213Ч214
Geometry, three classical problems of      68 71
George William, Elector of Brandenburg      93
Germany      33 46 49Ч50 52 55 63 72 74 76Ч77 82 83 84 85 87 89 92 93Ч95 103Ч104 106 108 111 130 131Ч132 155 159 168 169 172Ч173 189 206Ч212 213 248n
Gillot, Jean      147Ч148
Global Positioning System (GPS)      2Ч4
Gnomon      220Ч221 225Ч227
Gnosticism      91
God as perfect being      62 151 157 185
God, attributes of      48
God, divine will of      83 138 139 185
God, existence of      6 62 157 168 175 177 218
God, worship of      1 58 59 60
Grammarians      188Ч189 192 197Ч199 205
Gravity      37 127Ч128 130 132 136 157 236
Greece, ancient      6 30Ч32 37 43 45 46Ч47 59 62Ч69 65 70 71 77 84 90 100 107 116 121 160 162Ч169 185 207 218 220Ч221 225 232
Grene, Marjorie      5
Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden      183
Guth, Alan      236
Hapsburg monarchy      50 51 53 78
Harmonic Philosophy and Magic of the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross      103
Hartmann, Johann      102 103
Haslmayr, Adam      89
Haussmann, Georges      7
Hawking, Stephen      236
Hawlitschek, Kurt      74 108
Hebenstreit, John-Baptist      61Ч62 111
Heliocentric theory      130 136 138 153
Henry IV, King of France      27 28 32Ч34
Hermetic writings      91
Hogeland, Cornelius van      248n
Holland      39Ч54 80Ч81 95 97 105 132Ч133 141 145Ч146 151 156 167 169 171 172 174Ч179 183 185Ч187 203 204 248n
Holy Roman Empire      51 52Ч53 114Ч115
Huguenots      49 125Ч130 147 25!n
Huygens, Christiaan      204 212
Huygens, Constantijn      148 204
Hypotenuse      162Ч163 163
Icosahedrons      217 217 218 225 227 239 240
Idyll XV (Ausonius)      58 246n
Index of Prohibited Books      229
Inquisition      6 20Ч21 88 136Ч144 152Ч153 225 228
Integers      74 120 164
James I, King of England      50 53
Jans, Helene      145Ч147 171 252n
Jesuits      26 27Ч28 33 89 129 178
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