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Lewis E.P. — Effects of a Magnetic Field on Radiation -Memoirs by Faraday Kerr and Zeeman
Lewis E.P. — Effects of a Magnetic Field on Radiation -Memoirs by Faraday Kerr and Zeeman

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Название: Effects of a Magnetic Field on Radiation -Memoirs by Faraday Kerr and Zeeman

Автор: Lewis E.P.


ext extracted from opening pages of book: SCIENTIFIC MEMOIRS EDITED BY J. S. AMES, PH. D. PROFESSOR OP PHYSICS IN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY VIII. THE EFFECTS OF A MAGNETIC FIELD ON RADIATION THE EFFECTS OF A MAGNETIC FIELD ON RADIATION MEMOIRS BY FARADAY, KERR AND ZEEMAN EDITED BY E. P. LEWIS, PH. D. NEW YORK .: CINCINNATI : CHICAGO AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. W. P. I PBEFACE Historical IN the early part of this century possible relationships between the various forces of nature began to attract the attention of physicists. In 1800 William Herschel discovered that a heat spectrum is superimposed on and extends be yond the visible solar spectrum, indicating some relationship between heat and light. This seems to have suggested to Domenico Morichini, of Kome, the search for a relationship between light and magnetism. In 1812 he claimed that he had been able to magnetize steel needles by exposing them to the violet radiation in the solar spectrum. Others, including Mrs. Somemlle, in England, believed that they had verified his results, but many wore unable to reproduce them, and it was finally demonstrated that all these effects had been due to other causes. The dispute over this question extended over many years, and is an instructive illustration of the difficulty which even skilled experimenters may have in solving a com paratively simple experimental problem. About 1825 Sir John Herschel sent a polarized beam of light along the axis of a helix carrying an electric current. Exami nation with an analyzer showed no effect. He also intended to test the effect of a polarized beam passing tangentially by a con ductor carrying a current, but never executed the experiment. No other attempt to show a relationship between light and magnetism seems to have been made until Faraday undertook the investigation described in the following pages. Theoretical In the Proceedings of the Royal Society for June, 1856, Sir William Thomson wrote : The magnetic influence on light PREFACE discovered by Faraday depends on the direction of motion of moving particles. For instance, in a medium possessing it, particles in a straight line parallel to the lines of magnetic force, displaced to a helix round this line as axis, and then projected tangentially with such velocities as to describe circles, will have different velocities according as their mo tions are round in one direction ( the same as the nominal direction of the galvanic current in the magnetizing coil) or in the contrary direction. But the elastic reaction of the medium, must be the same for the same displacements, what ever be the velocities ami directions of the particles; that is to say, the forces which are balanced by centrifugal force of the circular motions are equal, while the luminiferous motions are unequal. The absolute circular motions being, therefore, either equal, or such as to transmit equal centrifugal forces to the particles initially considered, it follows that the luminife rous motions are only components of the whole motion ; ami that a less luminiferous component in one direction, com pounded with a motion existing in the medium when trans mitting no light, gives an equal resultant to that of a greater luminiferous motion in the contrary direction, compounded with the same non-luminous motion. Maxwell, in his Electricity and Magnetism,, vol. ii., chap, xxi, offers the following partial physical explanation as an exten sion of the above remarks:* It is a well-known theorem in kinematics that two uniform circular vibrations, of the same amplitude, having the same periodic time, and in the same plane, but revolving in opposite directions, are equivalent, when compounded together, to a rectilinear vibration. The periodic time of this vibration is equal to that of the circular vibrations, its amplitude is double, and its direction is in the line joining the points at which two particles, describing the circular vibrations in opposite dire

Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 2007

Количество страниц: 132

Добавлена в каталог: 25.03.2008

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Предметный указатель
Absorption spectra, effect on      69 71
Air, rotation in      x 12 17 23
Ames, Earheart, and Reese, experiments of      xv
Anomalous dispersion      ix xi xiv
Becquerel, E. and H., experiments of      ix x xii
Bibliography      98
Cadmium, effect of magnetism on spectrum of      88 92
Chauvin, experiments of      xii
Compensator, use of      42
Cornu, experiments of      xv
Crystals, rotation in      xii 11 23
Diamagnetic, definition of      4
Doublets, magnetic, in spectra      86 88
Doubly refracting bodies, rotation in      xii
Du Bois, experiments of      xi xiv
Equations of motion of ions      74
Ether vortices      vi
Faraday effect in crystals      xii 11 17 23
Faraday effect in gases      x 12 17 23
Faraday effect in liquids and solutions      xi 10 11
Faraday effect in magnetic metals      xi
Faraday effect, anomalous rotation      ix xi xiv
Faraday effect, discovery of      5
Faraday effect, laws of      x 7 8
Faraday, biography of      24
Faraday, search for magnetic effect on spectra by      67 79
Fievez, experiments of      80
Fitzgerald, experiment of      xiii
Forces, conservation of      v 4 13
Forces, lines of      4
Gases, rotation in      x 12 17 23
Glass, optical      5 10
Hall effect      viii ix
Hall, experiments of      v viii ix
Herschel, experiments of      v
Interferometer, use of      95
Ions      viii 73 90
Kerr effect, equatorial reflection      53
Kerr effect, mathematical discussion      40
Kerr effect, nature and laws of      xiii 62
Kerr effect, normal incidence      61 63
Kerr effect, oblique incidence      34
Kerr effect, polar reflection      20
Kerr effect, summary of results      51 60
Kerr effect, wind's explanation of      viii xiv
Kerr, biography of      64
Kundt, experiments of      x xi xiii
Later investigations of faraday effect      ix
Liquids, rotation in      xi 10
Lorentz, theory of      viii 73
Luedtge, experiments of      xii
Magnetic change in spectral lines      94
Magnetic mirror      81
Matter, intervention of      vii 14
Maxwell, explanation of rotation by      vi
Metals, magnetic, rotation by      xi
Michelson, experiments of      xiv 95
Molecular condition of rotating bodies      14
Morichini, experiments of      v
Multiple reflection, use of      21
Period, magnetic change of      72 75 92
Periods of vibration of ions      74
Phase,change of, in reflection      xiii 41 63
Polarization of spectral lines      73 76 77 85
Polarization, circular      vi vii 73 75 76 80
Preston, explanation of magnetic doublets and triplets      xv
Quadruplets, magnetic, in spectrum      xv
Ratio of charge and mass of ions      73 77 90 94
Reflection, equatorial      53
Reflection, multiple, use of      21
Reflection, polar      29
Roentgen and kundt, experiments of      x
Rotation by reflection      see "Kerr effect"
Rotation in ether      v vi 72 80
Rotation, faraday      see "Faraday effect"
Rotation, natural      9 15
Siertsema, experiments of      x
Sodium, magnetic change in spectrum of      68 69 89 94
Sohneke, experiments of      xii
Solutions, rotation in      xi
Somerville, mrs., experiments of      v
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on absorption      69 71
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on band      71
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on cadmium      88 92
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on iodine      71
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on line      68
Spectrum, effect of magnetism on sodium      68 69 89 94
Spectrum, effect of magnetism, doublets      86 88
Spectrum, effect of magnetism, quadruplets      xv
Spectrum, effect of magnetism, triplets      76 85 87 89 92
Tait, attempt to discover effect of magnetism on spectra      80
Tension in diamagnetic      15 18
Tension in diamagnetics      15 18
Thomson, Wm., explanation of rotation by      v
Triplets, magnetic, in spectrum      76 85 87 89 92
Unpolarized light, rotation of      xii
Verdet, laws of      ix
Wedding, experiments of      xii
Wertheim, experiments of      xii
Wind, explanation of kerr effect by      viii xiv
Zeeman effect, absorption spectrum      69
Zeeman effect, band spectrum      71
Zeeman effect, band spectrum, doublets      86 88
Zeeman effect, band spectrum, triplets      76 85 89 92
Zeeman effect, change of period      92
Zeeman effect, emission spectrum      68
Zeeman effect, intensity of field      94
Zeeman effect, Lorentz's theory      73
Zeeman effect, magnetic change      94
Zeeman effect, mechanical explanation      72
Zeeman effect, polarization of components      76 77 85
Zeeman, biography of      97
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