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Talbott W.J. Ч Which Rights Should Be Universal?
Talbott W.J. Ч Which Rights Should Be Universal?

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Ќазвание: Which Rights Should Be Universal?

јвтор: Talbott W.J.

јннотаци€:

"We hold these truths to be self-evident... So begins the U.S. Declaration of Independence. What follows those words is a ringing endorsement of universal rights, but it is far from self-evident. Why did the authors claim that it was? William Talbott suggests that they were trapped by a presupposition of Enlightenment philosophy: That there was only one way to rationally justify universal truths, by proving them from self-evident premises." "With the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that the authors of the U.S. Declaration had no infallible source of moral truth. For example, many of the authors of the Declaration of Independence endorsed slavery. The wrongness of slavery was not self-evident; it was a moral discovery." In this book, William Talbott builds on the work of John Rawls, Jurgen Habermas, J.S. Mill, Amartya Sen, and Henry Shue to explain how, over the course of history, human beings have learned how to adopt a distinctively moral point of view from which it is possible to make universal, though not infallible, judgments of right and wrong. He explains how this distinctively moral point of view has led to the discovery of the moral importance of nine basic rights. Undoubtedly, the most controversial issue raised by the claim of universal rights is the issue of moral relativism. How can the advocate of universal rights avoid being a moral imperialist? In this book, Talbott shows how to defend basic individual rights from a universal moral point of view that is neither imperialistic nor relativistic.


язык: en

–убрика: –азное/

—татус предметного указател€: √отов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

»здание: 1st edition

√од издани€: 2005

 оличество страниц: 222

ƒобавлена в каталог: 30.12.2007

ќперации: ѕоложить на полку | —копировать ссылку дл€ форума | —копировать ID
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ѕредметный указатель
Angels      139 141Ч142 155 164 184
Angier, N.      199 n. II
Animals, nonhuman duties to      5Ч7 57Ч59 76 105 190 197 198
Animals, Spanish colonists' comparison of American natives to      53
Antirealism      See moral realism and antirealism
Appropriate responsiveness problem      36
Appropriate responsiveness problem, consequentialist version of      114Ч115 131Ч134 138 158
Appropriate responsiveness problem, nonconsequentialist version of      159
Aristotle      53 117 192 201
Aron, R.      39 201 202
Autocracy      13 132 162Ч164 205
Autocracy, capitalist      174Ч178 206
Autocracy, philosophical defenses of      17 115Ч120 142Ч149 173Ч174 184 186
Autonomy      105Ч107 139Ч140 146 181 203
Autonomy, consequentialist value      11 113Ч114 133Ч134 190 200
Autonomy, ground of human rights      168 169Ч170 172Ч174 185
Autonomy, nonconsequentialist value      16Ч17 113 125 133 159 175 203
Autonomy, nonmetaphysical conception of      106 131Ч132 166 203
Autonomy, rights      11Ч12 112 135Ч137 157 161 163 178
Autonomy, women's      89 102 104 110Ч112 development-of-judgment exercise-of-judgment and
Axelrod, R.      199 n. 1
Baehr, J.      192 n. 9
Baier, A.      205 n. 1
Beck, E. M.      197 n. 16
Beehive society      118 122Ч123 127 184
Beitz, C. R.      10 189
Benevolent information problem      118Ч119 121Ч122 128
Benevolent motivation problem      118Ч119 122 176
BonJour, L.      192 n. 6
Bork, R. H.      161
Bottom-up process      5Ч6 13 34 156Ч157 165 186
Bottom-up process, examples      89 109 155 162 166 176 181
Bottom-up reasoning      26Ч30 32Ч34 38 183 186 192 195
Bottom-up reasoning, examples      52 56Ч57 60Ч61 73 122
Brennan, G.      149
Brickman, P.      124
Brown v. Board of Education      157 205
Brownmiller, S.      89
Buchanan, J. M.      148 149 204
Camerer, C.      154
Capacity for judgment      16 125
Caro, R. A.      197 n. 18
Chan, J.      194 n. 2
Chang, J.      95 96 121
Claim of first-person authority      123Ч128 131Ч133 137 157 174
Coates, D.      124
Collective action problem      181Ч182 184 204
Collective action problem, government as a solution to      148Ч149 157Ч158 160 164 176
Collective action problem, n-person assurance game      97 144 199
Collective action problem, n-person prisoners' dilemma      144Ч146 155 157 204
Columbus, C.      19 51Ч53 65 69 72
Consequentialism      16Ч18 128 200Ч201 203 205
Consequentialism, justification of autocracy      116Ч118 142Ч147 176Ч178
Consequentialism, justification of rights      113Ч114 137Ч138 141 150Ч151 157Ч160 163Ч165 183
Consequentialism, value of autonomy      131Ч136 185 reliable and
Contractarianism      See social contract justification
Convention      See enforcement by convention
Cosmides, L.      74
Cranston, M.      137 178 179 180
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health      203 n. 28
Daly, M.      90
Democratic rights      9 13 164 178
Democratic rights as emerging from anti-democratic traditions      40Ч41
Democratic rights, rationales for      139Ч141 157Ч164
Development-of-judgment rights      128Ч130 133 137 141 157 159
Devils      139 142 147Ч150 154Ч156 164 173 184
Dhimgjoka, M.      143
Dictator game      153 154
Donnelly, J.      9 189 200
Downs, A.      204 n. 12
Doyle, M. W.      163
Dred Scott v. Sandford      157 205
Dworkin, R.      193 n. 14
Ebadi, S.      112 199
Eckert, A.      67 69 105
Education      123 127
Education of women      88Ч93 101 104 107Ч110 126 paternalism
Education, right to      10Ч12 129 135 137 158 163 178Ч180
Empathy and empathic understanding      103 105 158Ч159 163Ч164 178
Empathy and empathic understanding in moral judgment      59Ч61 65Ч67 76Ч77 79Ч86 167Ч168 206Ч207
Enforcement by convention      97 107 108 144
Enrique      66Ч67
Epistemic justification      22Ч23 58Ч59 116 191 epistemic equilibrium Moral Proof selfserving and
Epistemic modesty and immodesty      15 20Ч22 36 75Ч78 108Ч111 178 187.
Equilibrium reasoning      22 25 29Ч35 192 195
Equilibrium reasoning, examples      52 59Ч62 73Ч75
Exercise-of-judgment rights      128Ч130 133 137 141 157 159
Experimental society      122Ч123 127 188
External norms      See internal and external norms
Faculty of judgment      124 125 179 185 186
Fairness      18 160 162Ч163
Fairness, judgments of      18 81 152 170Ч171
Fairness, willingness to incur costs to promote      18 153Ч156 158Ч159 165 181 186
Faisal, T.      112
Fallibilism and infallibilism, angels      141Ч142
Fallibilism and infallibilism, moral authorities      4Ч6 18 20 82Ч85 186 190Ч191
Fallibilism and infallibilism, Plato      118 201 Moral moral and
Feedback      See reliable feedback problem
First-person authority      See claim of first-person authority
Frank, R. H.      151 204
Franklin, B.      40 162
Freedom of association      123Ч124 130 137 163 178
Freedom of the press      9 12 110
Freedom of the press as a basic human right      122Ч124 129Ч132 162Ч163 178
Freedom of the press under Lee Kwan Yew      19 39
Freedom of thought and expression      11 137 163 178
Gewirth, A.      200 n. 1
Gittings, J.      99
Glover, J.      119 163 202
Golden Rule      34Ч35 74Ч75 77 81 167Ч168 193
Good judgment      88 104 128Ч134 172Ч173 203
Goodwin, J.      99 100 101
Griswold v. Connecticut      135 203
Guarocuya      See Enrique
Gutierrez, G.      80 190 197 198
Habermas, J.      22 25 29 31 32 193
Hanson, V. D.      199 n. 11
Harman, G.      196 n. 12 197
Harris, G.      200 n. 14
Harsanyi, J.      81 103 184
Hart, H. L. A.      189 n. 1
Hayek, F.      202 n. 16
Hempel, C.      192 n. 8
Hobbes, T.      17 116 138 142Ч149 157 176 184 204
Hoffman, E.      154
Hollander, P.      201 n. 3 202
Hoong, C. M.      177
Human rights      1Ч2 16 27Ч28 105Ч106 182Ч183 190 197 205
Human rights, arguments against      17 116Ч118 142Ч147 173Ч174
Human rights, arguments for      13Ч15 194 nonconse-quentialism)
Human rights, basic      37Ч38 136Ч137 163Ч164 178Ч180 202
Human rights, coercive intervention interpretation      7
Human rights, discovery of      33Ч36 40Ч41 84Ч85 87Ч88 106Ч107 180Ч181 184Ч185 189 205
Human rights, ground of      110Ч111 172Ч173
Human rights, minimal legitimacy interpretation      9Ч13 189
Human rights, overlapping consensus interpretation      8Ч9 89 189 exercise-of-judgment International political universality and
Hume, D.      24 167 169Ч170 191 196 205
Imperialism      See moral imperialism
Incommensurability thesis      45Ч46
Inductivist reasoning      26Ч29 192
Infallibilism      See fallibilism and infallibilism
Infallibility thesis      45
Internal and external norms      44Ч50 62 78 82Ч89 102Ч103 111Ч112 194Ч195
International Criminal Court      7 181 182 205
Invisible hand process      139 147 148 160
Jahangir, A.      94 112
Janoff-Bulman, R.      124
Johnson, S.      39
Jonsen, A. R.      192 n. 7
Josephy, A. M.      41 51 66 72 198
judgment      See good judgment and moral judgment
Judiciary, independent      157Ч158 161Ч162 163Ч164 175 178
Justice      10 13 46 142 146 165 173 181Ч182 190 194Ч195
Justice, consequentialist account      114 159 200
Justice, nonconsequentialist account      114 160 original reliable and
Kahneman, D.      151 153 154 205
Kant, I.      30 89 106 139 147 148 149 200
Kelley, S.      101
Kim, E. K.      189 n. 6
Knetsch, J. L.      153 154 205
Kristof, N.      189 n. 3
Kymlicka, W.      7
Las Casas, Bartolome de      6 20 47Ч87 184 186 190 195 197 198 29 and
Lawrence v. Texas      135 203
Lee Kwan Yew      17 19 39Ч40 86 117 138 174Ч178 194 206
Lilla, M.      201 n. 3 202
Loving v. Virginia      136 203
Lundberg, S. J.      199 n. 8
Lysenko, T. D.      120 121 202
Macintyre, A.      45 195
Mackie, G.      96 97 199 200
Mackie, J.      24 195
Mahbubani, K.      177 178 194
Mao Zedong      113 119 121 150 156 202
Marx, K.      118 148
Maynard Smith, J.      199 n. 1
McCabe, K. A.      154
McCarthy, T. A.      32 182 193
McCullough, M.      92
McGirk, T.      94
Medvedev, Z.      120 202
Melching, M.      96 200
Metaphysical modesty and immodesty      15Ч16 20 30Ч32 78 187 193
Mill, J. S.      22 25 29 87 89 122 123 125 130 133 134 188 192 200
Millgram, E.      124 192
Moore, M.      83
Moral antirealism      See moral realism and antirealism
Moral development      4Ч6 16 22 73 105 180 189
Moral development of Las Casas      52 62 79Ч80 84
Moral Discovery paradigm      19 34Ч36 184Ч186
Moral imperialism      15Ч16 49 187
Moral imperialism, cultural      39Ч44
Moral imperialism, examples      20Ч21 50 62
Moral imperialism, how to avoid      47 75Ч79 83Ч84 87 103Ч104 107Ч110
Moral judgment      4Ч6 15 76 78 105 173 197
Moral judgment, bias      23 46 47 67Ч69 71Ч74 76 85Ч86 125 197 198
Moral judgment, other sources of unreliability      73Ч75
Moral judgment, parochial      75Ч77 See also bottom-up reasoning empathy fairness moral moral moral moral moral original particular topdown and
Moral justification      22 36 46 71 86 161
Moral norms      See moral principles and norms
Moral observation      28 62Ч68 71Ч72 76 79Ч80 112 196
Moral philosophy      4Ч6 13Ч16 18 63 186.
Moral principles and norms      25Ч30 38 73
Moral progress      13 80 181Ч182 186
Moral progress and moral sentiment      166Ч169
Moral progress, examples of      33Ч35 162Ч163 180Ч181 184Ч185
Moral progress, standards of      75 169Ч173
Moral realism and antirealism      167 168 170
Moral relativism      13Ч14 16 50Ч52 76Ч78 103Ч104 109 195 198
Moral relativism, cultural      39Ч47 49 52 62 82Ч87 111Ч112 171 174 194Ч195
Moral relativism, incoherence in arguments for      21 41Ч43 194
Moral skepticism      25 30 49 55 72 75.
Moral standpoint      18 19 50Ч51 80Ч86 181Ч182 184 187Ч188 206
Moral standpoint, and women's rights      102Ч103 109 devils Las original and
Moral standpoint, role in protecting rights and promoting justice      155Ч158 160
Moral standpoint, role of sentiment in      167Ч172
Moral wishy-washiness      See moral relativism
Murphy, L.      181
Myrdal, G.      71
Nasrin, T.      101 112
Nelson, S. S.      94 97
Nonconsequentialism      16Ч17 145Ч146
Nonconsequentialism, justification of rights      133 136Ч137 159Ч160 175Ч176 183 203
Nonconsequentialism, value of autonomy      113 185 appropriate and
Nonviolent resistance      156
Norm      See moral principles and norms
North, D.      204 n. 13
Nozick, R.      147 160 200 202 203
Nussbaum, M. C.      167 197 202
Original position      81 103 152Ч153 171 179 184 206
Pagden, A.      53 195
Particular moral judgments      25Ч26 198
Particular moral judgments, examples      25 27
Particular moral judgments, universality of      48Ч51 57 60 77 85
Paternalism      11 110 134Ч136 190
Paternalism and autocracy      116Ч118 126 138 174 176Ч178 184Ч186 201
Paternalism and patriarchal institutions      91Ч92 101Ч102
Paternalism, moral      15 20 49
Paternalism, rights against      11Ч12 88 134Ч137 159 163 203
Paternalism, self-reinforcing      104 114 117Ч118 135
Patriarchal norms      89Ч102 105 111 171
Perrin, E. C.      136
Personal point of view      66 82 145 152 181
Planned Parenthood v. Casey      203 n. 27
Plato      17 24 41 115Ч118 122Ч123 127 134 184 186 194 201
Political rights      141 157Ч159 163Ч164 178 202 judiciary reliable and
Principle      See moral principles and norms
Proof paradigm      14 23Ч24 25Ч26 31 54 85 118 186 188 192
Proof paradigm and reason      167Ч168 See also top-down reasoning
Proof paradigm, Plato's commitment to      122
Proof paradigm, problems for      22 24Ч25 27 29Ч30 34Ч36 50 55Ч56 62 75 191 197
Rawls, J.      172Ч173
Rawls, J. and consequentialism      160 193 200Ч201
Rawls, J., equilibrium reasoning      22 25 29 31 192
Rawls, J., law of peoples      9Ч13 189
Rawls, J., original position      81 103 184 193 202
Raz, J.      133Ч134
Realism      See moral realism and antirealism
Relativism      See moral relativism
Reliable feedback problem      36 114 141
Reliable feedback problem, consequentialist version of      114Ч115 128Ч134 138 158
Reliable feedback problem, nonconsequentialist version of      159
Religious tolerance      8 9 40
Requirimiento      20 190
responsiveness      See appropriate responsiveness problem
Riding, A.      199 n. 9
Rights-respecting democracy      18 141 188 205
Rights-respecting democracy, Hobbes's challenge      142 146Ч147 149 155Ч158
Rights-respecting democracy, Lee Kwan Yew's challenge      174Ч178
Rights-respecting democracy, stability of      160Ч164 170 173 180 182 184
Rorty, R.      166Ч173 196 205
Rose, E.      199 n. 8
Roth, A.      152
Rousseau, J.-J.      89 92
Saco, J. A.      195 n. 4
Sale, K.      19 51 53 195
Sandel, M. J.      11
Sartre, J.-P.      24
Sasson, J.      199 n. 8
Scanlon, T. M.      82 198 203
Security rights      128Ч129 137 163 178Ч179 203
Seierstad, A.      101 199
Self-determination      132Ч135 172 203
Self-regulating system      36Ч37 161 184
Self-regulating system, self-improving      37 161Ч162 164
Self-serving beliefs      67Ч69 71Ч73 76 82 198
Self-serving beliefs and need for International Criminal Court      182
Self-serving beliefs, examples      58 74 98 103Ч104 126 132 174 186
Self-serving beliefs, socially enforced      65 69Ч71 77 83 99 106 112 155 156
Sen, A.      40 99 102 149Ч151 163 199 204
Sesser, S.      206 nn. 3Ч4
Shue, H.      128 129 179 202
Singer, P      6 189 197 198
Skepticism      See moral skepticism
Skrlec, J.      179
Skyrms, B.      152 171 204
Smith, A.      139 147 148
Smith, C. S.      199 n. 3
Smith, V.      151 154
Sober, E.      202 n. 17
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