Though the deep interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) is inaccessible to humans, we are able to combine observational, experimental and computational (theoretical) studies to begin to understand the role of the deep Earth in the dynamics and evolution of the planet. This book brings together a series of reviews of key areas in this important and vibrant field of studies.
A range of material properties, including phase transformations and rheological properties, influences the way in which material is circulated within the planet. This circulation re-distributes key materials such as volatiles that affect the pattern of materials circulation. The understanding of deep Earth structure and dynamics is a key to the understanding of evolution and dynamics of terrestrial planets, including planets orbiting other stars.
This book contains chapters on deep Earth materials, compositional models, and geophysical studies of material circulation which together provide an invaluable synthesis of deep Earth research.
Readership: advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers in geophysics, mineral physics and geochemistry.
Chapter 1 Volatiles under High Pressure (pages 1–37): Hans Keppler
Chapter 2 Earth's Mantle Melting in the Presence of C–O–H–Bearing Fluid (pages 38–65): Konstantin D. Litasov, Anton Shatskiy and Eiji Ohtani
Chapter 3 Elasticity, Anelasticity, and Viscosity of a Partially Molten Rock (pages 66–93): Yasuko Takei
Chapter 4 Rheological Properties of Minerals and Rocks (pages 94–144): Shun?Ichiro Karato
Chapter 5 Electrical Conductivity of Minerals and Rocks (pages 145–182): Shun?Ichiro Karato and Duojun Wang
Chapter 6 Chemical Composition of the Earth's Lower Mantle: Constraints from Elasticity (pages 183–212): Motohiko Murakami
Chapter 7 Ab Initio Mineralogical Model of the Earth's Lower Mantle (pages 213–243): Taku Tsuchiya and Kenji Kawai
Chapter 8 Chemical and Physical Properties and Thermal State of the Core (pages 244–270): Eiji Ohtani
Chapter 9 Composition and Internal Dynamics of Super?Earths (pages 271–294): Diana Valencia
Chapter 10 Seismic Observations of Mantle Discontinuities and Their Mineralogical and Dynamical Interpretation (pages 295–323): Arwen Deuss, Jennifer Andrews and Elizabeth Day
Chapter 11 Global Imaging of the Earth's Deep Interior: Seismic Constraints on (An)isotropy, Density and Attenuation (pages 324–350): Jeannot Trampert and Andreas Fichtner
Chapter 12 Mantle Mixing: Processes and Modeling (pages 351–371): Peter E. van Keken
Chapter 13 Fluid Processes in Subduction Zones and Water Transport to the Deep Mantle (pages 372–391): Hikaru Iwamori and Tomoeki Nakakuki