The electrical characteristics of the printed circuit board (PCB) used to physically mount and connect the circuit components in a high frequency product will have a significant impact on the performance of that product. The potential magnitude of the effect of the PCB design increases with frequency as the parasitic elements tend to a similar magnitude to the typical lumped components used. This leads to the requirement for increased inclusion of electrical models representing PCB structures into the circuit simulation. In practical radio products the requirements on the PCB design can sometimes be in conflict with 'best manufacturing' practise. In order to achieve the most optimum solution in all respects the radio designer, the PCB designer and the manufacturing engineer must all have some appreciation of each others requirements.