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Название: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 7
Авторы: Rose A., Tempest D.
Almost one hundred years ago, Cohn (1872) suggested that the
resistance of bacteria to attack by acids and alkalies was due to the
presence of a rigid structure surrounding the cell. The phenomenon of
plasmolysis, first observed twenty years later by Fischer (1891), produced
the first visual evidence for a cell wall. During plasmolysis the cytoplasm
loses water and retracts from an apparently rigid cell wall. The suggestion
that the retracted cytoplasm is itself surrounded by a membrane responsive to osmotic changes followed naturally from Fischer’s observations.
Although some evidence for this membrane was obtained from observations with the light microscope, conclusive visual evidence came only
with the advent of electron microscopy and the allied thin-section
techniques (Kellenberger and Ryter, 1958; Glauert, 1962). This membrane has been variously termed a “cytoplasmic membrane”, a “plasma
membrane”, a “protoplast membrane” and more recently a “plasmalemma”. In this review it is proposed to use the term cytoplasmic